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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(3), 2683-2697; doi:10.3390/ijerph110302683
Article

A Simple Tool for Diet Evaluation in Primary Health Care: Validation of a 16-Item Food Intake Questionnaire

1,2,* , 3,†
,
4,†
,
1,†
,
5,†
 and
1,†
1 Department of Chronic Disease Prevention, National Institute for Health and Welfare, P.O. Box 30, FI-00271 Helsinki, Finland 2 Development of Work and Organizations, Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Topeliuksenkatu 41 a A, FI-00250 Helsinki, Finland 3 The Prevention Project of Diabetes and Cardiovascular Diseases, Pirkanmaa Hospital District, P.O. Box 2000, FI-33521 Tampere, Finland 4 Tampere University Hospital, P.O. Box 2000, FI-33521 Tampere, Finland 5 Finnair Health Services, IF/67, 01053 Finnair, Finland These authors contributed equally to this work.
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 15 January 2014 / Revised: 17 February 2014 / Accepted: 18 February 2014 / Published: 4 March 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lifestyle Intervention for Chronic Diseases Prevention)
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Abstract

Our aim was to validate a 16-item food intake questionnaire (16-FIQ) and create an easy to use method to estimate patients’ nutrient intake in primary health care. Participants (52 men, 25 women) completed a 7-day food record and a 16-FIQ. Food and nutrient intakes were calculated and compared using Spearman correlation. Further, nutrient intakes were compared using kappa-statistics and exact and opposite agreement of intake tertiles. The results indicated that the 16-FIQ reliably categorized individuals according to their nutrient intakes. Methods to estimate nutrient intake based on the answers given in 16-FIQ were created. In linear regression models nutrient intake estimates from the food records were used as the dependent variables and sum variables derived from the 16-FIQ were used as the independent variables. Valid regression models were created for the energy proportion of fat, saturated fat, and sucrose and the amount of fibre (g), vitamin C (mg), iron (mg), and vitamin D (μg) intake. The 16-FIQ is a valid method for estimating nutrient intakes in group level. In addition, the 16-FIQ could be a useful tool to facilitate identification of people in need of dietary counselling and to monitor the effect of counselling in primary health care.
Keywords: food intake questionnaire; nutrition assessment; primary health care; validation studies food intake questionnaire; nutrition assessment; primary health care; validation studies
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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Hemiö, K.; Pölönen, A.; Ahonen, K.; Kosola, M.; Viitasalo, K.; Lindström, J. A Simple Tool for Diet Evaluation in Primary Health Care: Validation of a 16-Item Food Intake Questionnaire. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11, 2683-2697.

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