Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2013, 10(9), 4200-4223; doi:10.3390/ijerph10094200
Review

A Review of Vaccine Approaches for West Nile Virus

†,* email and * email
Received: 8 July 2013; in revised form: 2 September 2013 / Accepted: 5 September 2013 / Published: 10 September 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Epidemiology of West Nile Virus)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: The West Nile virus (WNC) first appeared in North America in 1999. The North American lineages of WNV were characterized by the presence of neuroinvasive and neurovirulent strains causing disease and death in humans, birds and horses. The 2012 WNV season in the United States saw a massive spike in the number of neuroinvasive cases and deaths similar to what was seen in the 2002–2003 season, according to the West Nile virus disease cases and deaths reported to the CDC by year and clinical presentation, 1999–2012, by ArboNET (Arboviral Diseases Branch, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention). In addition, the establishment and recent spread of lineage II WNV virus strains into Western Europe and the presence of neurovirulent and neuroinvasive strains among them is a cause of major concern. This review discusses the advances in the development of vaccines and biologicals to combat human and veterinary West Nile disease.
Keywords: West Nile Virus; vaccine; flaviviruses; envelope glycoprotein; WNV lineage; veterinary vaccine
PDF Full-text Download PDF Full-Text [275 KB, uploaded 19 June 2014 03:19 CEST]

Export to BibTeX |
EndNote


MDPI and ACS Style

Iyer, A.V.; Kousoulas, K.G. A Review of Vaccine Approaches for West Nile Virus. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2013, 10, 4200-4223.

AMA Style

Iyer AV, Kousoulas KG. A Review of Vaccine Approaches for West Nile Virus. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2013; 10(9):4200-4223.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Iyer, Arun V.; Kousoulas, Konstantin G. 2013. "A Review of Vaccine Approaches for West Nile Virus." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 10, no. 9: 4200-4223.


Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert