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A Review of Vaccine Approaches for West Nile Virus
Division of Biotechnology and Molecular Medicine, Louisiana State University School of Veterinary Medicine, Skip Bertman Drive, Baton Rouge, LA 70803, USA
Current Address: Boehringer Ingelheim Vetmedica, Suite 1000, Ames, IA 50010, USA.
* Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 8 July 2013; in revised form: 2 September 2013 / Accepted: 5 September 2013 / Published: 10 September 2013
Abstract: The West Nile virus (WNC) first appeared in North America in 1999. The North American lineages of WNV were characterized by the presence of neuroinvasive and neurovirulent strains causing disease and death in humans, birds and horses. The 2012 WNV season in the United States saw a massive spike in the number of neuroinvasive cases and deaths similar to what was seen in the 2002–2003 season, according to the West Nile virus disease cases and deaths reported to the CDC by year and clinical presentation, 1999–2012, by ArboNET (Arboviral Diseases Branch, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention). In addition, the establishment and recent spread of lineage II WNV virus strains into Western Europe and the presence of neurovirulent and neuroinvasive strains among them is a cause of major concern. This review discusses the advances in the development of vaccines and biologicals to combat human and veterinary West Nile disease.
Keywords: West Nile Virus; vaccine; flaviviruses; envelope glycoprotein; WNV lineage; veterinary vaccine
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Iyer, A.V.; Kousoulas, K.G. A Review of Vaccine Approaches for West Nile Virus. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2013, 10, 4200-4223.
Iyer AV, Kousoulas KG. A Review of Vaccine Approaches for West Nile Virus. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2013; 10(9):4200-4223.
Iyer, Arun V.; Kousoulas, Konstantin G. 2013. "A Review of Vaccine Approaches for West Nile Virus." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 10, no. 9: 4200-4223.