Next Article in Journal
A Content Analysis of Media Coverage of the Introduction of a Smoke-Free Bylaw in Vancouver Parks and Beaches
Next Article in Special Issue
Genetic Analysis of West Nile Virus Isolates from an Outbreak in Idaho, United States, 2006–2007
Previous Article in Journal
Patterns of Smoking Prevalence among the Elderly in Europe
Previous Article in Special Issue
A Review of Vaccine Approaches for West Nile Virus
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2013, 10(9), 4432-4443; doi:10.3390/ijerph10094432

Natural Exposure of Horses to Mosquito-Borne Flaviviruses in South-East Queensland, Australia

1 Australian Infectious Diseases Research Centre, University of Queensland, St. Lucia, QLD 4078, Australia 2 School of Biochemistry & Molecular Biosciences, University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD 4072, Australia 3 School of Veterinary Science, University of Queensland, Gatton, QLD 4343, Australia
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 5 August 2013 / Revised: 9 September 2013 / Accepted: 10 September 2013 / Published: 17 September 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Epidemiology of West Nile Virus)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [242 KB, uploaded 19 June 2014]


In 2011 an unprecedented epidemic of equine encephalitis occurred in south-eastern (SE) Australia following heavy rainfall and severe flooding in the preceding 2–4 months. Less than 6% of the documented cases occurred in Queensland, prompting the question of pre-existing immunity in Queensland horses. A small-scale serological survey was conducted on horses residing in one of the severely flood-affected areas of SE-Queensland. Using a flavivirus-specific blocking-ELISA we found that 63% (39/62) of horses older than 3 years were positive for flavivirus antibodies, and of these 18% (7/38) had neutralizing antibodies to Murray Valley encephalitis virus (MVEV), Kunjin virus (WNVKUN) and/or Alfuy virus (ALFV). The remainder had serum-neutralizing antibodies to viruses in the Kokobera virus (KOKV) complex or antibodies to unknown/untested flaviviruses. Amongst eight yearlings one presented with clinical MVEV-encephalomyelitis, while another, clinically normal, had MVEV-neutralizing antibodies. The remaining six yearlings were flavivirus antibody negative. Of 19 foals born between August and November 2011 all were flavivirus antibody negative in January 2012. This suggests that horses in the area acquire over time active immunity to a range of flaviviruses. Nevertheless, the relatively infrequent seropositivity to MVEV, WNVKUN and ALFV (15%) suggests that factors other than pre-existing immunity may have contributed to the low incidence of arboviral disease in SE-Queensland horses during the 2011 epidemic.
Keywords: flavivirus; equine; antibody response; mosquito-borne; encephalitis flavivirus; equine; antibody response; mosquito-borne; encephalitis
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

Share & Cite This Article

Further Mendeley | CiteULike
Export to BibTeX |
EndNote |
MDPI and ACS Style

Prow, N.A.; Tan, C.S.E.; Wang, W.; Hobson-Peters, J.; Kidd, L.; Barton, A.; Wright, J.; Hall, R.A.; Bielefeldt-Ohmann, H. Natural Exposure of Horses to Mosquito-Borne Flaviviruses in South-East Queensland, Australia. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2013, 10, 4432-4443.

View more citation formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

For more information on the journal, click here


[Return to top]
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert