Next Article in Journal
Methods for Recovering Microorganisms from Solid Surfaces Used in the Food Industry: A Review of the Literature
Next Article in Special Issue
Occupational Pesticide Exposures and Respiratory Health
Previous Article in Journal
Mobile, Cloud, and Big Data Computing: Contributions, Challenges, and New Directions in Telecardiology
Previous Article in Special Issue
Improving the Psychosocial Work Environment at Multi-Ethnic Workplaces: A Multi-Component Intervention Strategy in the Cleaning Industry
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2013, 10(11), 6154-6168; doi:10.3390/ijerph10116154

Toxicology Testing in Fatally Injured Workers: A Review of Five Years of Iowa FACE Cases

1,* , 1
Received: 2 September 2013 / Revised: 1 November 2013 / Accepted: 4 November 2013 / Published: 14 November 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Occupational Health)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [712 KB, 19 June 2014; original version 19 June 2014]   |   Browse Figures


Toxicology testing of fatally injured workers is not routinely conducted. We completed a case-series study of 2005–2009 occupational fatalities captured by Iowa’s Fatality Assessment and Control Evaluation (FACE) Program. The goals of our research were to: (1) measure the proportion of FACE cases that undergo toxicology testing, and describe the factors associated with being tested, and (2) measure the rate of positive toxicology tests, the substances identified and the demographics and occupations of victims who tested positive. Case documents and toxicology laboratory reports were reviewed. There were 427 occupational deaths from 2005 to 2009. Only 69% underwent toxicology testing. Younger workers had greater odds of being tested. Among occupational groups, workers in farming, fishing and forestry had half the odds of being tested compared to other occupational groups. Of the 280 cases with toxicology tests completed, 22% (n = 61) were found to have positive toxicology testing. Commonly identified drug classes included cannabinoids and alcohols. Based on the small number of positive tests, older victims (65+ years) tested positive more frequently than younger workers. Management, business, science, arts, service and sales/office workers had proportionately more positive toxicology tests (almost 30%) compared with other workers (18–22%). These results identify an area in need of further research efforts and a potential target for injury prevention strategies.
Keywords: injury; occupational; fatality; drugs; alcohol injury; occupational; fatality; drugs; alcohol
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Share & Cite This Article

Further Mendeley | CiteULike
Export to BibTeX |
MDPI and ACS Style

Ramirez, M.; Bedford, R.; Sullivan, R.; Anthony, T.R.; Kraemer, J.; Faine, B.; Peek-Asa, C. Toxicology Testing in Fatally Injured Workers: A Review of Five Years of Iowa FACE Cases. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2013, 10, 6154-6168.

View more citation formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

For more information on the journal, click here


Cited By

[Return to top]
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert