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Metabolomic Investigations of American Oysters Using 1H-NMR Spectroscopy
Joint Department of Biomedical Engineering, NC State University and UNC Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA
Environmental Medicine Consortium, NC State University, 4700 Hillsborough St., Raleigh, NC 27606, USA
Department of Surgery, Hollings Cancer Center, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC 29425, USA
Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State University, 4700 Hillsborough St., Raleigh, NC 27606, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 27 August 2010; in revised form: 22 September 2010 / Accepted: 30 September 2010 / Published: 8 October 2010
Abstract: The Eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica) is a useful, robust model marine organism for tissue metabolism studies. Its relatively few organs are easily delineated and there is sufficient understanding of their functions based on classical assays to support interpretation of advanced spectroscopic approaches. Here we apply high-resolution proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR)-based metabolomic analysis to C. virginica to investigate the differences in the metabolic profile of different organ groups, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to non-invasively identify the well separated organs. Metabolites were identified in perchloric acid extracts of three portions of the oyster containing: (1) adductor muscle, (2) stomach and digestive gland, and (3) mantle and gills. Osmolytes dominated the metabolome in all three organ blocks with decreasing concentration as follows: betaine > taurine > proline > glycine > ß-alanine > hypotaurine. Mitochondrial metabolism appeared most pronounced in the adductor muscle with elevated levels of carnitine facilitating ß-oxidation, and ATP, and phosphoarginine synthesis, while glycogen was elevated in the mantle/gills and stomach/digestive gland. A biochemical schematic is presented that relates metabolites to biochemical pathways correlated with physiological organ functions. This study identifies metabolites and corresponding 1H NMR peak assignments for future NMR-based metabolomic studies in oysters.
Keywords: 1H NMR; metabolomic; oyster; mollusk; carnitine
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MDPI and ACS Style
Tikunov, A.P.; Johnson, C.B.; Lee, H.; Stoskopf, M.K.; Macdonald, J.M. Metabolomic Investigations of American Oysters Using 1H-NMR Spectroscopy. Mar. Drugs 2010, 8, 2578-2596.
Tikunov AP, Johnson CB, Lee H, Stoskopf MK, Macdonald JM. Metabolomic Investigations of American Oysters Using 1H-NMR Spectroscopy. Marine Drugs. 2010; 8(10):2578-2596.
Tikunov, Andrey P.; Johnson, Christopher B.; Lee, Haakil; Stoskopf, Michael K.; Macdonald, Jeffrey M. 2010. "Metabolomic Investigations of American Oysters Using 1H-NMR Spectroscopy." Mar. Drugs 8, no. 10: 2578-2596.