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Mar. Drugs 2010, 8(10), 2578-2596; doi:10.3390/md8102578
Article

Metabolomic Investigations of American Oysters Using 1H-NMR Spectroscopy

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Received: 27 August 2010; in revised form: 22 September 2010 / Accepted: 30 September 2010 / Published: 8 October 2010
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metabolomic Approaches to Marine Organisms)
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Abstract: The Eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica) is a useful, robust model marine organism for tissue metabolism studies. Its relatively few organs are easily delineated and there is sufficient understanding of their functions based on classical assays to support interpretation of advanced spectroscopic approaches. Here we apply high-resolution proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR)-based metabolomic analysis to C. virginica to investigate the differences in the metabolic profile of different organ groups, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to non-invasively identify the well separated organs. Metabolites were identified in perchloric acid extracts of three portions of the oyster containing: (1) adductor muscle, (2) stomach and digestive gland, and (3) mantle and gills. Osmolytes dominated the metabolome in all three organ blocks with decreasing concentration as follows: betaine > taurine > proline > glycine > ß-alanine > hypotaurine. Mitochondrial metabolism appeared most pronounced in the adductor muscle with elevated levels of carnitine facilitating ß-oxidation, and ATP, and phosphoarginine synthesis, while glycogen was elevated in the mantle/gills and stomach/digestive gland. A biochemical schematic is presented that relates metabolites to biochemical pathways correlated with physiological organ functions. This study identifies metabolites and corresponding 1H NMR peak assignments for future NMR-based metabolomic studies in oysters.
Keywords: 1H NMR; metabolomic; oyster; mollusk; carnitine 1H NMR; metabolomic; oyster; mollusk; carnitine
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Tikunov, A.P.; Johnson, C.B.; Lee, H.; Stoskopf, M.K.; Macdonald, J.M. Metabolomic Investigations of American Oysters Using 1H-NMR Spectroscopy. Mar. Drugs 2010, 8, 2578-2596.

AMA Style

Tikunov AP, Johnson CB, Lee H, Stoskopf MK, Macdonald JM. Metabolomic Investigations of American Oysters Using 1H-NMR Spectroscopy. Marine Drugs. 2010; 8(10):2578-2596.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Tikunov, Andrey P.; Johnson, Christopher B.; Lee, Haakil; Stoskopf, Michael K.; Macdonald, Jeffrey M. 2010. "Metabolomic Investigations of American Oysters Using 1H-NMR Spectroscopy." Mar. Drugs 8, no. 10: 2578-2596.


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