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Mar. Drugs 2014, 12(4), 1699-1714; doi:10.3390/md12041699

Nature’s Lab for Derivatization: New and Revised Structures of a Variety of Streptophenazines Produced by a Sponge-Derived Streptomyces Strain

1
Kiel Center for Marine Natural Products at the Helmholtz Center for Ocean Research (GEOMAR), Am Kiel-Kanal 44, Kiel 24106, Germany
2
Institute of Organic Chemistry, University of Wuerzburg, Am Hubland, Wuerzburg 97074, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 19 December 2013 / Revised: 7 February 2014 / Accepted: 17 February 2014 / Published: 25 March 2014
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Abstract

Eight streptophenazines (A–H) have been identified so far as products of Streptomyces strain HB202, which was isolated from the sponge Halichondria panicea from the Baltic Sea. The variation of bioactivities based on small structural changes initiated further studies on new derivatives. Three new streptophenazines (I–K) were identified after fermentation in the present study. In addition, revised molecular structures of streptophenazines C, D, F and H are proposed. Streptophenazines G and K exhibited moderate antibacterial activity against the facultative pathogenic bacterium Staphylococcus epidermidis and against Bacillus subtilis. All tested compounds (streptophenazines G, I–K) also showed moderate activities against PDE 4B.
Keywords: marine natural product; phenazine; Baltic Sea; Streptomyces; Halichondria panicea; HPLC-DAD/MS; fermentation; PDE 4; antibiotic marine natural product; phenazine; Baltic Sea; Streptomyces; Halichondria panicea; HPLC-DAD/MS; fermentation; PDE 4; antibiotic
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kunz, A.L.; Labes, A.; Wiese, J.; Bruhn, T.; Bringmann, G.; Imhoff, J.F. Nature’s Lab for Derivatization: New and Revised Structures of a Variety of Streptophenazines Produced by a Sponge-Derived Streptomyces Strain. Mar. Drugs 2014, 12, 1699-1714.

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