Next Article in Journal
Synthesis and Evaluation of Some New Aza-B-homocholestane Derivatives as Anticancer Agents
Previous Article in Journal
New and Rare Carotenoids Isolated from Marine Bacteria and Their Antioxidant Activities
Mar. Drugs 2014, 12(4), 1699-1714; doi:10.3390/md12041699
Article

Nature’s Lab for Derivatization: New and Revised Structures of a Variety of Streptophenazines Produced by a Sponge-Derived Streptomyces Strain

1
,
1
,
1
,
2
,
2
 and
1,*
1 Kiel Center for Marine Natural Products at the Helmholtz Center for Ocean Research (GEOMAR), Am Kiel-Kanal 44, Kiel 24106, Germany 2 Institute of Organic Chemistry, University of Wuerzburg, Am Hubland, Wuerzburg 97074, Germany
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 19 December 2013 / Revised: 7 February 2014 / Accepted: 17 February 2014 / Published: 25 March 2014
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [509 KB, uploaded 24 February 2015]   |   Browse Figures

Abstract

Eight streptophenazines (A–H) have been identified so far as products of Streptomyces strain HB202, which was isolated from the sponge Halichondria panicea from the Baltic Sea. The variation of bioactivities based on small structural changes initiated further studies on new derivatives. Three new streptophenazines (I–K) were identified after fermentation in the present study. In addition, revised molecular structures of streptophenazines C, D, F and H are proposed. Streptophenazines G and K exhibited moderate antibacterial activity against the facultative pathogenic bacterium Staphylococcus epidermidis and against Bacillus subtilis. All tested compounds (streptophenazines G, I–K) also showed moderate activities against PDE 4B.
Keywords: marine natural product; phenazine; Baltic Sea; Streptomyces; Halichondria panicea; HPLC-DAD/MS; fermentation; PDE 4; antibiotic marine natural product; phenazine; Baltic Sea; Streptomyces; Halichondria panicea; HPLC-DAD/MS; fermentation; PDE 4; antibiotic
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Supplement

Share & Cite This Article

Further Mendeley | CiteULike
Export to BibTeX |
EndNote
MDPI and ACS Style

Kunz, A.L.; Labes, A.; Wiese, J.; Bruhn, T.; Bringmann, G.; Imhoff, J.F. Nature’s Lab for Derivatization: New and Revised Structures of a Variety of Streptophenazines Produced by a Sponge-Derived Streptomyces Strain. Mar. Drugs 2014, 12, 1699-1714.

View more citation formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

For more information on the journal, click here

Comments

Cited By

[Return to top]
Mar. Drugs EISSN 1660-3397 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert