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Sensors 2016, 16(2), 222; doi:10.3390/s16020222

Efficient Donor Impurities in ZnO Nanorods by Polyethylene Glycol for Enhanced Optical and Glutamate Sensing Properties

1
Department of Science and Technology, Campus Norrkoping, Linkoping University, SE-60174 Norrkoping, Sweden
2
Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology (IFM), Linköping University, 58183 Linköping, Sweden
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 12 January 2016 / Accepted: 2 February 2016 / Published: 6 February 2016
(This article belongs to the Section Chemical Sensors)
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Abstract

In this paper, we show that the possibility of using polyethylene glycol (EG) as a hydrogen source and it is used to assist the hydrothermal synthesis of ZnO nanorods (ZNRs). EG doping in ZNRs has been found to significantly improve their optical and chemical sensing characteristics toward glutamate. The EG was found to have no role on the structural properties of the ZNRs. However, the x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) suggests that the EG could induce donor impurities effect in ZnO. Photoluminescence (PL) and UV-Vis. spectra demonstrated this doping effect. Mott-Schottky analysis at the ZNRs/electrolyte interface was used to investigate the charge density for the doped ZNRs and showed comparable dependence on the used amount of EG. Moreover, the doped ZNRs were used in potentiometric measurements for glutamate for a range from 10−6 M to 10−3 M and the potential response of the sensor electrode was linear with a slope of 91.15 mV/decade. The wide range and high sensitivity of the modified ZNRs based glutamate biosensor is attributed to the doping effect on the ZNRs that is dictated by the EG along with the high surface area-to-volume ratio. The findings in the present study suggest new avenues to control the growth of n-ZnO nanostructures and enhance the performance of their sensing devices. View Full-Text
Keywords: glutamate; ZnO nanorods; doping; potentiometric sensor glutamate; ZnO nanorods; doping; potentiometric sensor
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Elhag, S.; Khun, K.; Khranovskyy, V.; Liu, X.; Willander, M.; Nur, O. Efficient Donor Impurities in ZnO Nanorods by Polyethylene Glycol for Enhanced Optical and Glutamate Sensing Properties. Sensors 2016, 16, 222.

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