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Sensors 2015, 15(6), 13477-13502; doi:10.3390/s150613477

Maximum Constrained Directivity of Oversteered End-Fire Sensor Arrays

Department of Electrical, Electronic, Telecommunications Engineering, and Naval Architecture (DITEN), University of Genoa, 5-16126 Genova, Italy
Pattern Analysis & Computer Vision (PAVIS), Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia (IIT), 30.16163 Genova, Italy
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Vittorio M.N. Passaro
Received: 31 March 2015 / Revised: 25 May 2015 / Accepted: 3 June 2015 / Published: 9 June 2015
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [858 KB, uploaded 9 June 2015]   |  


For linear arrays with fixed steering and an inter-element spacing smaller than one half of the wavelength, end-fire steering of a data-independent beamformer offers better directivity than broadside steering. The introduction of a lower bound on the white noise gain ensures the necessary robustness against random array errors and sensor mismatches. However, the optimum broadside performance can be obtained using a simple processing architecture, whereas the optimum end-fire performance requires a more complicated system (because complex weight coefficients are needed). In this paper, we reconsider the oversteering technique as a possible way to simplify the processing architecture of equally spaced end-fire arrays. We propose a method for computing the amount of oversteering and the related real-valued weight vector that allows the constrained directivity to be maximized for a given inter-element spacing. Moreover, we verify that the maximized oversteering performance is very close to the optimum end-fire performance. We conclude that optimized oversteering is a viable method for designing end-fire arrays that have better constrained directivity than broadside arrays but with a similar implementation complexity. A numerical simulation is used to perform a statistical analysis, which confirms that the maximized oversteering performance is robust against sensor mismatches. View Full-Text
Keywords: beamforming; end-fire arrays; oversteering; maximum directivity; white noise gain; microphone and hydrophone arrays beamforming; end-fire arrays; oversteering; maximum directivity; white noise gain; microphone and hydrophone arrays

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Trucco, A.; Traverso, F.; Crocco, M. Maximum Constrained Directivity of Oversteered End-Fire Sensor Arrays. Sensors 2015, 15, 13477-13502.

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