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Sensors 2015, 15(3), 4870-4889; doi:10.3390/s150304870

Electropolymerized Molecularly Imprinted Polypyrrole Film for Sensing of Clofibric Acid

1
KIST Europe Forschungsgesellschaft mbH, Campus E 7.1, 66123 Saarbrücken, Germany
2
Lehrstuhl für Technische Chemie II, Universität Duisburg-Essen, Universitätsstraße 7, 45141 Essen, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Peter Lieberzeit
Received: 18 January 2015 / Revised: 15 February 2015 / Accepted: 16 February 2015 / Published: 26 February 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mass-Sensitive Sensors Based on Biomimetic Recognition)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1495 KB, uploaded 27 February 2015]   |  

Abstract

Piezoelectric quartz crystals and analogous gold substrates were electrochemically coated with molecularly imprinted polypyrrole films for pulsed amperometric detection (PAD) of clofibric acid, a metabolite of clofibrate. Cyclic voltammetry data obtained during polymerization and deposited weight estimations revealed a decrease of the polymerization rate with increasing clofibric acid concentration. XPS measurements indicated that clofibric acid could be removed after imprinting with an aqueous ethanol solution, which was further optimized by using PAD. Zeta potential and contact angle measurements revealed differences between molecularly imprinted (MIP) and non-imprinted polymer (NIP) layers. Binding experiments with clofibric acid and other substances showed a pronounced selectivity of the MIP for clofibric acid vs. carbamazepine, but the response of MIP and NIP to 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid was higher than that for clofibric acid. A smooth surface, revealed by AFM measurements, with roughness of 6–8 nm for imprinted and non-imprinted layers, might be a reason for an excessively low density of specific binding sites for clofibric acid. Furthermore, the decreased polymerization rate in the presence of clofibric acid might not result in well-defined polymer structures, which could be the reason for the lower sensitivity. View Full-Text
Keywords: molecularly imprinted polymer; polypyrrole; clofibric acid; quartz crystal microbalance; electrochemical polymerization; amperometric sensor molecularly imprinted polymer; polypyrrole; clofibric acid; quartz crystal microbalance; electrochemical polymerization; amperometric sensor
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Schweiger, B.; Kim, J.; Kim, Y.J.; Ulbricht, M. Electropolymerized Molecularly Imprinted Polypyrrole Film for Sensing of Clofibric Acid. Sensors 2015, 15, 4870-4889.

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