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Sensors 2014, 14(12), 23419-23438; doi:10.3390/s141223419

Biomimetic Receptors for Bioanalyte Detection by Quartz Crystal Microbalances — From Molecules to Cells

1,2,‡
,
1,‡
,
1,‡
and
1,*
1
Department of Analytical Chemistry, University of Vienna, Waehringer Strasse 38, Vienna A-1090, Austria
2
Department of Chemistry, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Tobe Camp, University Road, Abbottabad 22060, Pakistan
Dedicated to Dr. Gert Mages on the occasion of his 75th birthday.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 14 September 2014 / Revised: 17 November 2014 / Accepted: 27 November 2014 / Published: 5 December 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mass-Sensitive Sensors Based on Biomimetic Recognition)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [5098 KB, uploaded 5 December 2014]   |  

Abstract

A universal label-free detection of bioanalytes can be performed with biomimetic quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) coatings prepared by imprinting strategies. Bulk imprinting was used to detect the endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) known as estradiols. The estrogen 17β-estradiol is one of the most potent EDCs, even at very low concentrations. A highly sensitive, selective and robust QCM sensor was fabricated for real time monitoring of 17β-estradiol in water samples by using molecular imprinted polyurethane. Optimization of porogen (pyrene) and cross-linker (phloroglucinol) levels leads to improved sensitivity, selectivity and response time of the estradiol sensor. Surface imprinting of polyurethane as sensor coating also allowed us to generate interaction sites for the selective recognition of bacteria, even in a very complex mixture of interfering compounds, while they were growing from their spores in nutrient solution. A double molecular imprinting approach was followed to transfer the geometrical features of natural bacteria onto the synthetic polymer to generate biomimetic bacteria. The use of biomimetic bacteria as template makes it possible to prepare multiple sensor coatings with similar sensitivity and selectivity. Thus, cell typing, e.g., differentiation of bacteria strains, bacteria growth profile and extent of their nutrition, can be monitored by biomimetic mass sensors. Obviously, this leads to controlled cell growth in bioreactors. View Full-Text
Keywords: estradiol; endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs); quartz crystal microbalance (QCM); molecular imprinted polymers (MIPs); Escherichia coli (E. coli); Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis) estradiol; endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs); quartz crystal microbalance (QCM); molecular imprinted polymers (MIPs); Escherichia coli (E. coli); Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis)
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Latif, U.; Qian, J.; Can, S.; Dickert, F.L. Biomimetic Receptors for Bioanalyte Detection by Quartz Crystal Microbalances — From Molecules to Cells. Sensors 2014, 14, 23419-23438.

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