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Sensors 2015, 15(3), 4837-4869; doi:10.3390/s150304837

The Past, Present and Future of Cyber-Physical Systems: A Focus on Models

EECS Department, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-1770, USA
Academic Editor: Albert M. K. Cheng
Received: 31 December 2014 / Revised: 22 January 2015 / Accepted: 3 February 2015 / Published: 26 February 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cyber-Physical Systems)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [298 KB, uploaded 26 February 2015]   |  

Abstract

This paper is about better engineering of cyber-physical systems (CPSs) through better models. Deterministic models have historically proven extremely useful and arguably form the kingpin of the industrial revolution and the digital and information technology revolutions. Key deterministic models that have proven successful include differential equations, synchronous digital logic and single-threaded imperative programs. Cyber-physical systems, however, combine these models in such a way that determinism is not preserved. Two projects show that deterministic CPS models with faithful physical realizations are possible and practical. The first project is PRET, which shows that the timing precision of synchronous digital logic can be practically made available at the software level of abstraction. The second project is Ptides (programming temporally-integrated distributed embedded systems), which shows that deterministic models for distributed cyber-physical systems have practical faithful realizations. These projects are existence proofs that deterministic CPS models are possible and practical. View Full-Text
Keywords: cyber-physical systems; real-time systems; clock synchronization; time synchronization; PRET machines; distributed systems cyber-physical systems; real-time systems; clock synchronization; time synchronization; PRET machines; distributed systems
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Lee, E.A. The Past, Present and Future of Cyber-Physical Systems: A Focus on Models. Sensors 2015, 15, 4837-4869.

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