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Sensors 2014, 14(9), 15914-15938; doi:10.3390/s140915914
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Development of Phase Detection Schemes Based on Surface Plasmon Resonance Using Interferometry

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Received: 5 May 2014 / Revised: 9 July 2014 / Accepted: 10 July 2014 / Published: 28 August 2014
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
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Abstract

Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) is a novel optical sensing technique with a unique ability to monitor molecular binding in real-time for biological and chemical sensor applications. Interferometry is an excellent tool for accurate measurement of SPR changes, the measurement and comparison is made for the sensitivity, dynamic range and resolution of the different analytes using interferometry techniques. SPR interferometry can also employ phase detection in addition to the amplitude of the reflected light wave, and the phase changes more rapidly compared with other approaches, i.e., intensity, angle and wavelength. Therefore, the SPR phase interferometer offers the advantages of spatial phase resolution and high sensitivity. This work discusses the advancements in interferometric SPR methods to measure the phase shifts due to refractive index changes. The main application areas of SPR sensors are demonstrated, i.e., the Fabry-Perot interferometer, Michelson interferometer and Mach-Zehnder interferometer, with different configurations. The three interferometers are discussed in detail, and solutions are suggested to enhance the performance parameters that will aid in future biological and chemical sensors.
Keywords: surface plasmon resonance; sensors; interferometry; Fabry-Perot; Mach-Zehnder; Michelson surface plasmon resonance; sensors; interferometry; Fabry-Perot; Mach-Zehnder; Michelson
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Kashif, M.; Bakar, A.A.A.; Arsad, N.; Shaari, S. Development of Phase Detection Schemes Based on Surface Plasmon Resonance Using Interferometry. Sensors 2014, 14, 15914-15938.

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