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Sensors 2014, 14(9), 15939-15952; doi:10.3390/s140915939
Article

Detection of Potato Storage Disease via Gas Analysis: A Pilot Study Using Field Asymmetric Ion Mobility Spectrometry

1,* , 1
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Received: 16 June 2014; in revised form: 21 August 2014 / Accepted: 22 August 2014 / Published: 28 August 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Agriculture and Forestry: Sensors, Technologies and Procedures)
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Abstract: Soft rot is a commonly occurring potato tuber disease that each year causes substantial losses to the food industry. Here, we explore the possibility of early detection of the disease via gas/vapor analysis, in a laboratory environment, using a recent technology known as FAIMS (Field Asymmetric Ion Mobility Spectrometry). In this work, tubers were inoculated with a bacterium causing the infection, Pectobacterium carotovorum, and stored within set environmental conditions in order to manage disease progression. They were compared with controls stored in the same conditions. Three different inoculation time courses were employed in order to obtain diseased potatoes showing clear signs of advanced infection (for standard detection) and diseased potatoes with no apparent evidence of infection (for early detection). A total of 156 samples were processed by PCA (Principal Component Analysis) and k-means clustering. Results show a clear discrimination between controls and diseased potatoes for all experiments with no difference among observations from standard and early detection. Further analysis was carried out by means of a statistical model based on LDA (Linear Discriminant Analysis) that showed a high classification accuracy of 92.1% on the test set, obtained via a LOOCV (leave-one out cross-validation).
Keywords: FAIMS; soft rot; potato storage disease; early disease detection FAIMS; soft rot; potato storage disease; early disease detection
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Rutolo, M.; Covington, J.A.; Clarkson, J.; Iliescu, D. Detection of Potato Storage Disease via Gas Analysis: A Pilot Study Using Field Asymmetric Ion Mobility Spectrometry. Sensors 2014, 14, 15939-15952.

AMA Style

Rutolo M, Covington JA, Clarkson J, Iliescu D. Detection of Potato Storage Disease via Gas Analysis: A Pilot Study Using Field Asymmetric Ion Mobility Spectrometry. Sensors. 2014; 14(9):15939-15952.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Rutolo, Massimo; Covington, James A.; Clarkson, John; Iliescu, Daciana. 2014. "Detection of Potato Storage Disease via Gas Analysis: A Pilot Study Using Field Asymmetric Ion Mobility Spectrometry." Sensors 14, no. 9: 15939-15952.


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