Sensors 2013, 13(10), 13276-13288; doi:10.3390/s131013276
Article

Quantification of Mesenchymal Stem Cell Growth Rates through Secretory and Excretory Biomolecules in Conditioned Media via Fresnel Reflection

1 Photonics Research Centre, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia 2 Regenerative Dentistry Research Group (ReDReG), University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia 3 Research and Development Department, Hygieia Innovation Sdn. Bhd, Lot 1G-2G, Komplex Lanai, No.2, Persiaran Seri Perdana, Presint 10, 62250 Federal Territory of Putrajaya, Malaysia 4 Institute of Mathematical Sciences (ISM), Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 15 June 2013; in revised form: 13 September 2013 / Accepted: 19 September 2013 / Published: 30 September 2013
(This article belongs to the Section Biosensors)
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Abstract: An efficient and low cost optical method for directly measuring the concentration of homogenous biological solutes is proposed and demonstrated. The proposed system operates by Fresnel reflection, with a flat-cleaved single-mode fiber serving as the sensor probe. A laser provides a 12.9 dBm sensor signal at 1,550 nm, while a computer-controlled optical power meter measures the power of the signal returned by the probe. Three different mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) lines were obtained, sub-cultured and trypsinized daily over 9 days. Counts were measured using a haemocytometer and the conditioned media (CM) was collected daily and stored at −80 °C. MSCs release excretory biomolecules proportional to their growth rate into the CM, which changes the refractive index of the latter. The sensor is capable of detecting changes in the number of stem cells via correlation to the change in the refractive index of the CM, with the measured power loss decreasing approximately 0.4 dB in the CM sample per average 1,000 cells in the MSC subculture. The proposed system is highly cost-effective, simple to deploy, operate, and maintain, is non-destructive, and allows reliable real-time measurement of various stem cell proliferation parameters.
Keywords: fresnel sensor; biosensor; mesenchymal stem cells; real-time measurement; Wharton’s Jelly; conditioned media; cytokines

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MDPI and ACS Style

Ahmad, H.; Thambiratnam, K.; Zulkifli, A.Z.; Lawrence, A.; Jasim, A.A.; Kunasekaran, W.; Musa, S.; Gnanasegaran, N.; Vasanthan, P.; Jayaraman, P.; Kasim, N.H.A.; Govindasamy, V.; Shahrir, M.S.; Harun, S.W. Quantification of Mesenchymal Stem Cell Growth Rates through Secretory and Excretory Biomolecules in Conditioned Media via Fresnel Reflection. Sensors 2013, 13, 13276-13288.

AMA Style

Ahmad H, Thambiratnam K, Zulkifli AZ, Lawrence A, Jasim AA, Kunasekaran W, Musa S, Gnanasegaran N, Vasanthan P, Jayaraman P, Kasim NHA, Govindasamy V, Shahrir MS, Harun SW. Quantification of Mesenchymal Stem Cell Growth Rates through Secretory and Excretory Biomolecules in Conditioned Media via Fresnel Reflection. Sensors. 2013; 13(10):13276-13288.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ahmad, Harith; Thambiratnam, Kavintheran; Zulkifli, Ahmad Z.; Lawrence, Anthony; Jasim, Ali A.; Kunasekaran, Wijenthiran; Musa, Sabri; Gnanasegaran, Nareshwaran; Vasanthan, Punitha; Jayaraman, Pukana; Kasim, Noor H.A.; Govindasamy, Vijayendran; Shahrir, Mohammad S.; Harun, Sulaiman W. 2013. "Quantification of Mesenchymal Stem Cell Growth Rates through Secretory and Excretory Biomolecules in Conditioned Media via Fresnel Reflection." Sensors 13, no. 10: 13276-13288.

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