Sensors 2012, 12(9), 12710-12728; doi:10.3390/s120912710
Review

Validation Processes of Protein Biomarkers in Serum—A Cross Platform Comparison

Received: 31 August 2012; in revised form: 6 September 2012 / Accepted: 10 September 2012 / Published: 18 September 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biochips)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: Due to insufficient biomarker validation and poor performances in diagnostic assays, the candidate biomarker verification process has to be improved. Multi-analyte immunoassays are the tool of choice for the identification and detailed validation of protein biomarkers in serum. The process of identification and validation of serum biomarkers, as well as their implementation in diagnostic routine requires an application of independent immunoassay platforms with the possibility of high-throughput. This review will focus on three main multi-analyte immunoassay platforms: planar microarrays, multiplex bead systems and, array-based surface plasmon resonance (SPR) chips. Recent developments of each platform will be discussed for application in clinical proteomics, principles, detection methods, and performance strength. The requirements for specific surface functionalization of assay platforms are continuously increasing. The reasons for this increase is the demand for highly sensitive assays, as well as the reduction of non-specific adsorption from complex samples, and with it high signal-to-noise-ratios. To achieve this, different support materials were adapted to the immobilized biomarker/ligand, allowing a high binding capacity and immobilization efficiency. In the case of immunoassays, the immobilized ligands are proteins, antibodies or peptides, which exhibit a diversity of chemical properties (acidic/alkaline; hydrophobic/hydrophilic; secondary or tertiary structure/linear). Consequently it is more challenging to develop immobilization strategies necessary to ensure a homogenous covered surface and reliable assay in comparison to DNA immobilization. New developments concerning material support for each platform are discussed especially with regard to increase the immobilization efficiency and reducing the non-specific adsorption from complex samples like serum and cell lysates.
Keywords: clinical proteomics and diagnostic; multi-analyte immunoassays; serum screening; antibody-antigen interaction
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MDPI and ACS Style

Köhler, K.; Seitz, H. Validation Processes of Protein Biomarkers in Serum—A Cross Platform Comparison. Sensors 2012, 12, 12710-12728.

AMA Style

Köhler K, Seitz H. Validation Processes of Protein Biomarkers in Serum—A Cross Platform Comparison. Sensors. 2012; 12(9):12710-12728.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Köhler, Katja; Seitz, Harald. 2012. "Validation Processes of Protein Biomarkers in Serum—A Cross Platform Comparison." Sensors 12, no. 9: 12710-12728.

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