Open AccessThis article is
- freely available
Fully Integrated Biochip Platforms for Advanced Healthcare
École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland
Interuniversity Microelectronics Centre (IMEC), B-3001 Leuven, Belgium
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003, USA
Brunel Institute for Bioengineering, University of Brunel, West London, UB8 3PH, UK
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Center for Bioelectronics, Biosensors and Biochips, Clemson University, Anderson, SC 29625, USA
ABTECH Scientific, Inc., Richmond, VA 23219, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 19 June 2012; in revised form: 10 July 2012 / Accepted: 17 July 2012 / Published: 8 August 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biochips
Abstract: Recent advances in microelectronics and biosensors are enabling developments of innovative biochips for advanced healthcare by providing fully integrated platforms for continuous monitoring of a large set of human disease biomarkers. Continuous monitoring of several human metabolites can be addressed by using fully integrated and minimally invasive devices located in the sub-cutis, typically in the peritoneal region. This extends the techniques of continuous monitoring of glucose currently being pursued with diabetic patients. However, several issues have to be considered in order to succeed in developing fully integrated and minimally invasive implantable devices. These innovative devices require a high-degree of integration, minimal invasive surgery, long-term biocompatibility, security and privacy in data transmission, high reliability, high reproducibility, high specificity, low detection limit and high sensitivity. Recent advances in the field have already proposed possible solutions for several of these issues. The aim of the present paper is to present a broad spectrum of recent results and to propose future directions of development in order to obtain fully implantable systems for the continuous monitoring of the human metabolism in advanced healthcare applications.
Keywords: biochip; CMOS design; enzymes, biotechnology; nanotechnology; potentiostats; biocompatible membranes; security; privacy; remote powering
Citations to this Article
Cite This Article
MDPI and ACS Style
Carrara, S.; Ghoreishizadeh, S.; Olivo, J.; Taurino, I.; Baj-Rossi, C.; Cavallini, A.; Op de Beeck, M.; Dehollain, C.; Burleson, W.; Moussy, F.G.; Guiseppi-Elie, A.; De Micheli, G. Fully Integrated Biochip Platforms for Advanced Healthcare. Sensors 2012, 12, 11013-11060.
Carrara S, Ghoreishizadeh S, Olivo J, Taurino I, Baj-Rossi C, Cavallini A, Op de Beeck M, Dehollain C, Burleson W, Moussy FG, Guiseppi-Elie A, De Micheli G. Fully Integrated Biochip Platforms for Advanced Healthcare. Sensors. 2012; 12(8):11013-11060.
Carrara, Sandro; Ghoreishizadeh, Sara; Olivo, Jacopo; Taurino, Irene; Baj-Rossi, Camilla; Cavallini, Andrea; Op de Beeck, Maaike; Dehollain, Catherine; Burleson, Wayne; Moussy, Francis Gabriel; Guiseppi-Elie, Anthony; De Micheli, Giovanni. 2012. "Fully Integrated Biochip Platforms for Advanced Healthcare." Sensors 12, no. 8: 11013-11060.