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Mechanisms of Radiation Toxicity in Transformed and Non-Transformed Cells
Department of Pharmacology, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, MD 20814-4799, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 17 June 2013; in revised form: 19 July 2013 / Accepted: 22 July 2013 / Published: 31 July 2013
Abstract: Radiation damage to biological systems is determined by the type of radiation, the total dosage of exposure, the dose rate, and the region of the body exposed. Three modes of cell death—necrosis, apoptosis, and autophagy—as well as accelerated senescence have been demonstrated to occur in vitro and in vivo in response to radiation in cancer cells as well as in normal cells. The basis for cellular selection for each mode depends on various factors including the specific cell type involved, the dose of radiation absorbed by the cell, and whether it is proliferating and/or transformed. Here we review the signaling mechanisms activated by radiation for the induction of toxicity in transformed and normal cells. Understanding the molecular mechanisms of radiation toxicity is critical for the development of radiation countermeasures as well as for the improvement of clinical radiation in cancer treatment.
Keywords: ionizing radiation; apoptosis; necrosis; senescence; autophagy; cancer; primary cell
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Panganiban, R.-A.M.; Snow, A.L.; Day, R.M. Mechanisms of Radiation Toxicity in Transformed and Non-Transformed Cells. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14, 15931-15958.
Panganiban R-AM, Snow AL, Day RM. Mechanisms of Radiation Toxicity in Transformed and Non-Transformed Cells. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2013; 14(8):15931-15958.
Panganiban, Ronald-Allan M.; Snow, Andrew L.; Day, Regina M. 2013. "Mechanisms of Radiation Toxicity in Transformed and Non-Transformed Cells." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 14, no. 8: 15931-15958.