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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(8), 15959-15976; doi:10.3390/ijms140815959
Article

Effect of δ-Opioid Receptor Activation on BDNF-TrkB vs. TNF-α in the Mouse Cortex Exposed to Prolonged Hypoxia

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Received: 19 June 2013; in revised form: 25 July 2013 / Accepted: 25 July 2013 / Published: 31 July 2013
(This article belongs to the collection Molecular Research in Neurotoxicology)
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Abstract: We investigated whether δ-opioid receptor (DOR)-induced neuroprotection involves the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) pathway. We studied the effect of DOR activation on the expression of BDNF and other proteins in the cortex of C57BL/6 mice exposed to hypoxia (10% of oxygen) for 1–10 days. The results showed that: (1) 1-day hypoxia had no appreciable effect on BDNF expression, while 3- and 10-day hypoxia progressively decreased BDNF expression, resulting in 37.3% reduction (p < 0.05) after 10-day exposure; (2) DOR activation with UFP-512 (1 mg/kg, i.p., daily) partially reversed the hypoxia-induced reduction of BDNF expression in the 3- or 10-day exposed cortex; (3) DOR activation partially reversed the hypoxia-induced reduction in functional TrkB (140-kDa) and attenuated hypoxia-induced increase in truncated TrkB (90-kDa) in the 3- or 10-day hypoxic cortex; and (4) prolonged hypoxia (10 days) significantly increased TNF-α level and decreased CD11b expression in the cortex, which was completely reversed following DOR activation; and (5) there was no significant change in pCREB and pATF-1 levels in the hypoxic cortex. We conclude that prolonged hypoxia down-regulates BDNF-TrkB signaling leading to an increase in TNF-α in the cortex, while DOR activation up-regulates BDNF-TrkB signaling thereby decreasing TNF-α levels in the hypoxic cortex.
Keywords: δ-opioid receptor; brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF); TNF-α; hypoxia; neuroprotection δ-opioid receptor; brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF); TNF-α; hypoxia; neuroprotection
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Tian, X.; Hua, F.; Sandhu, H.K.; Chao, D.; Balboni, G.; Salvadori, S.; He, X.; Xia, Y. Effect of δ-Opioid Receptor Activation on BDNF-TrkB vs. TNF-α in the Mouse Cortex Exposed to Prolonged Hypoxia. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14, 15959-15976.

AMA Style

Tian X, Hua F, Sandhu HK, Chao D, Balboni G, Salvadori S, He X, Xia Y. Effect of δ-Opioid Receptor Activation on BDNF-TrkB vs. TNF-α in the Mouse Cortex Exposed to Prolonged Hypoxia. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2013; 14(8):15959-15976.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Tian, Xuesong; Hua, Fei; Sandhu, Harleen K.; Chao, Dongman; Balboni, Gianfranco; Salvadori, Severo; He, Xiaozhou; Xia, Ying. 2013. "Effect of δ-Opioid Receptor Activation on BDNF-TrkB vs. TNF-α in the Mouse Cortex Exposed to Prolonged Hypoxia." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 14, no. 8: 15959-15976.


Int. J. Mol. Sci. EISSN 1422-0067 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert