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S-Glutathionylation in Monocyte and Macrophage (Dys)Function
Department of Biochemistry, University of Texas Health Science Center San Antonio, 7703 Floyd Curl Drive, San Antonio, TX 78229, USA
Department of Clinical Laboratory Sciences, University of Texas Health Science Center San Antonio, 7703 Floyd Curl Drive, San Antonio, TX 78229, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 3 June 2013; in revised form: 15 June 2013 / Accepted: 18 June 2013 / Published: 24 July 2013
Abstract: Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease involving the accumulation of monocytes and macrophages in the vascular wall. Monocytes and macrophages play a central role in the initiation and progression of atherosclerotic lesion development. Oxidative stress, which occurs when reactive oxygen species (ROS) overwhelm cellular antioxidant systems, contributes to the pathophysiology of many chronic inflammatory diseases, including atherosclerosis. Major targets of ROS are reactive thiols on cysteine residues in proteins, which when oxidized can alter cellular processes, including signaling pathways, metabolic pathways, transcription, and translation. Protein-S-glutathionylation is the process of mixed disulfide formation between glutathione (GSH) and protein thiols. Until recently, protein-S-glutathionylation was associated with increased cellular oxidative stress, but S-glutathionylation of key protein targets has now emerged as a physiologically important redox signaling mechanism, which when dysregulated contributes to a variety of disease processes. In this review, we will explore the role of thiol oxidative stress and protein-S-glutathionylation in monocyte and macrophage dysfunction as a mechanistic link between oxidative stress associated with metabolic disorders and chronic inflammatory diseases, including atherosclerosis.
Keywords: S-glutathionylation; monocyte; macrophage; thiol oxidative stress; vascular diseases
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Ullevig, S.; Kim, H.S.; Asmis, R. S-Glutathionylation in Monocyte and Macrophage (Dys)Function. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14, 15212-15232.
Ullevig S, Kim HS, Asmis R. S-Glutathionylation in Monocyte and Macrophage (Dys)Function. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2013; 14(8):15212-15232.
Ullevig, Sarah; Kim, Hong S.; Asmis, Reto. 2013. "S-Glutathionylation in Monocyte and Macrophage (Dys)Function." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 14, no. 8: 15212-15232.