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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(8), 15233-15259; doi:10.3390/ijms140815233
Review

How Can Plant DNA Viruses Evade siRNA-Directed DNA Methylation and Silencing?

Received: 13 June 2013; in revised form: 1 July 2013 / Accepted: 1 July 2013 / Published: 24 July 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Regulation by non-coding RNAs)
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Abstract: Plants infected with DNA viruses produce massive quantities of virus-derived, 24-nucleotide short interfering RNAs (siRNAs), which can potentially direct viral DNA methylation and transcriptional silencing. However, growing evidence indicates that the circular double-stranded DNA accumulating in the nucleus for Pol II-mediated transcription of viral genes is not methylated. Hence, DNA viruses most likely evade or suppress RNA-directed DNA methylation. This review describes the specialized mechanisms of replication and silencing evasion evolved by geminiviruses and pararetoviruses, which rescue viral DNA from repressive methylation and interfere with transcriptional and post-transcriptional silencing of viral genes.
Keywords: plant virus; DNA virus; geminivirus; pararetrovirus; silencing; siRNA; RNA-directed DNA methylation; cytosine methylation; silencing evasion; suppressor protein plant virus; DNA virus; geminivirus; pararetrovirus; silencing; siRNA; RNA-directed DNA methylation; cytosine methylation; silencing evasion; suppressor protein
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Pooggin, M.M. How Can Plant DNA Viruses Evade siRNA-Directed DNA Methylation and Silencing? Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14, 15233-15259.

AMA Style

Pooggin MM. How Can Plant DNA Viruses Evade siRNA-Directed DNA Methylation and Silencing? International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2013; 14(8):15233-15259.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Pooggin, Mikhail M. 2013. "How Can Plant DNA Viruses Evade siRNA-Directed DNA Methylation and Silencing?" Int. J. Mol. Sci. 14, no. 8: 15233-15259.



Int. J. Mol. Sci. EISSN 1422-0067 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert