Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(7), 13893-13908; doi:10.3390/ijms140713893

Sarcosine as a Potential Prostate Cancer Biomarker—A Review

1,2email, 2email, 1,2,3email, 1,2email, 1,2,3email, 1,2email, 4email, 5email, 1,2email and 1,2,* email
Received: 22 May 2013; in revised form: 20 June 2013 / Accepted: 22 June 2013 / Published: 4 July 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Research in Urology)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: Prostate cancer (CaP) is the most common type of tumour disease in men. Early diagnosis of cancer of the prostate is very important, because the sooner the cancer is detected, the better it is treated. According to that fact, there is great interest in the finding of new markers including amino acids, proteins or nucleic acids. Prostate specific antigen (PSA) is commonly used and is the most important biomarker of CaP. This marker can only be detected in blood and its sensitivity is approximately 80%. Moreover, early stages cannot be diagnosed using this protein. Currently, there does not exist a test for diagnosis of early stages of prostate cancer. This fact motivates us to find markers sensitive to the early stages of CaP, which are easily detected in body fluids including urine. A potential is therefore attributed to the non-protein amino acid sarcosine, which is generated by glycine-N-methyltransferase in its biochemical cycle. In this review, we summarize analytical methods for quantification of sarcosine as a CaP marker. Moreover, pathways of the connection of synthesis of sarcosine and CaP development are discussed.
Keywords: cancer of prostate; biomarkers; early diagnostic; prostatic specific antigen; non-invasive markers; urine; amino acids
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MDPI and ACS Style

Cernei, N.; Heger, Z.; Gumulec, J.; Zitka, O.; Masarik, M.; Babula, P.; Eckschlager, T.; Stiborova, M.; Kizek, R.; Adam, V. Sarcosine as a Potential Prostate Cancer Biomarker—A Review. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14, 13893-13908.

AMA Style

Cernei N, Heger Z, Gumulec J, Zitka O, Masarik M, Babula P, Eckschlager T, Stiborova M, Kizek R, Adam V. Sarcosine as a Potential Prostate Cancer Biomarker—A Review. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2013; 14(7):13893-13908.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Cernei, Natalia; Heger, Zbynek; Gumulec, Jaromir; Zitka, Ondrej; Masarik, Michal; Babula, Petr; Eckschlager, Tomas; Stiborova, Marie; Kizek, Rene; Adam, Vojtech. 2013. "Sarcosine as a Potential Prostate Cancer Biomarker—A Review." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 14, no. 7: 13893-13908.

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