Next Article in Journal
The Efficacy of Edaravone (Radicut), a Free Radical Scavenger, for Cardiovascular Disease
Next Article in Special Issue
Recent Progress in Pharmaceutical Therapies for Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer
Previous Article in Journal
(Healthy) Ageing: Focus on Iodothyronines
Previous Article in Special Issue
Molecular and Functional Imaging for Detection of Lymph Node Metastases in Prostate Cancer
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(7), 13893-13908; doi:10.3390/ijms140713893

Sarcosine as a Potential Prostate Cancer Biomarker—A Review

1 Central European Institute of Technology, Brno University of Technology, Technicka 3058/10, CZ-61600 Brno, Czech Republic 2 Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Faculty of Agronomy, Mendel University in Brno, Zemedelska 1, CZ-61300 Brno, Czech Republic 3 Department of Pathological Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Masaryk University, Kamenice 5, CZ-61200 Brno, Czech Republic 4 Department of Paediatric Haematology and Oncology, 2nd Faculty of Medicine, Charles University, and University Hospital Motol, V Uvalu 84, CZ-15006 Prague 5, Czech Republic 5 Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, Charles University, Albertov 2030, CZ-12840 Prague 2, Czech Republic
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 22 May 2013 / Revised: 20 June 2013 / Accepted: 22 June 2013 / Published: 4 July 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Research in Urology)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [520 KB, 19 June 2014; original version 19 June 2014]   |   Browse Figures


Prostate cancer (CaP) is the most common type of tumour disease in men. Early diagnosis of cancer of the prostate is very important, because the sooner the cancer is detected, the better it is treated. According to that fact, there is great interest in the finding of new markers including amino acids, proteins or nucleic acids. Prostate specific antigen (PSA) is commonly used and is the most important biomarker of CaP. This marker can only be detected in blood and its sensitivity is approximately 80%. Moreover, early stages cannot be diagnosed using this protein. Currently, there does not exist a test for diagnosis of early stages of prostate cancer. This fact motivates us to find markers sensitive to the early stages of CaP, which are easily detected in body fluids including urine. A potential is therefore attributed to the non-protein amino acid sarcosine, which is generated by glycine-N-methyltransferase in its biochemical cycle. In this review, we summarize analytical methods for quantification of sarcosine as a CaP marker. Moreover, pathways of the connection of synthesis of sarcosine and CaP development are discussed.
Keywords: cancer of prostate; biomarkers; early diagnostic; prostatic specific antigen; non-invasive markers; urine; amino acids cancer of prostate; biomarkers; early diagnostic; prostatic specific antigen; non-invasive markers; urine; amino acids
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Share & Cite This Article

Further Mendeley | CiteULike
Export to BibTeX |
MDPI and ACS Style

Cernei, N.; Heger, Z.; Gumulec, J.; Zitka, O.; Masarik, M.; Babula, P.; Eckschlager, T.; Stiborova, M.; Kizek, R.; Adam, V. Sarcosine as a Potential Prostate Cancer Biomarker—A Review. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14, 13893-13908.

View more citation formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

For more information on the journal, click here


Cited By

[Return to top]
Int. J. Mol. Sci. EISSN 1422-0067 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert