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Sarcosine as a Potential Prostate Cancer Biomarker—A Review
Central European Institute of Technology, Brno University of Technology, Technicka 3058/10, CZ-61600 Brno, Czech Republic
Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Faculty of Agronomy, Mendel University in Brno, Zemedelska 1, CZ-61300 Brno, Czech Republic
Department of Pathological Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Masaryk University, Kamenice 5, CZ-61200 Brno, Czech Republic
Department of Paediatric Haematology and Oncology, 2nd Faculty of Medicine, Charles University, and University Hospital Motol, V Uvalu 84, CZ-15006 Prague 5, Czech Republic
Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, Charles University, Albertov 2030, CZ-12840 Prague 2, Czech Republic
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 22 May 2013; in revised form: 20 June 2013 / Accepted: 22 June 2013 / Published: 4 July 2013
Abstract: Prostate cancer (CaP) is the most common type of tumour disease in men. Early diagnosis of cancer of the prostate is very important, because the sooner the cancer is detected, the better it is treated. According to that fact, there is great interest in the finding of new markers including amino acids, proteins or nucleic acids. Prostate specific antigen (PSA) is commonly used and is the most important biomarker of CaP. This marker can only be detected in blood and its sensitivity is approximately 80%. Moreover, early stages cannot be diagnosed using this protein. Currently, there does not exist a test for diagnosis of early stages of prostate cancer. This fact motivates us to find markers sensitive to the early stages of CaP, which are easily detected in body fluids including urine. A potential is therefore attributed to the non-protein amino acid sarcosine, which is generated by glycine-N-methyltransferase in its biochemical cycle. In this review, we summarize analytical methods for quantification of sarcosine as a CaP marker. Moreover, pathways of the connection of synthesis of sarcosine and CaP development are discussed.
Keywords: cancer of prostate; biomarkers; early diagnostic; prostatic specific antigen; non-invasive markers; urine; amino acids
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Cernei, N.; Heger, Z.; Gumulec, J.; Zitka, O.; Masarik, M.; Babula, P.; Eckschlager, T.; Stiborova, M.; Kizek, R.; Adam, V. Sarcosine as a Potential Prostate Cancer Biomarker—A Review. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14, 13893-13908.
Cernei N, Heger Z, Gumulec J, Zitka O, Masarik M, Babula P, Eckschlager T, Stiborova M, Kizek R, Adam V. Sarcosine as a Potential Prostate Cancer Biomarker—A Review. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2013; 14(7):13893-13908.
Cernei, Natalia; Heger, Zbynek; Gumulec, Jaromir; Zitka, Ondrej; Masarik, Michal; Babula, Petr; Eckschlager, Tomas; Stiborova, Marie; Kizek, Rene; Adam, Vojtech. 2013. "Sarcosine as a Potential Prostate Cancer Biomarker—A Review." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 14, no. 7: 13893-13908.