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Molecular and Functional Imaging for Detection of Lymph Node Metastases in Prostate Cancer
Department of Radiology, Nijmegen Medical Center, Radboud University, P.O. Box 9101, 6500 HB Nijmegen, The Netherlands
Department of Operation Rooms, Nijmegen Medical Center, Radboud University, P.O. Box 9101, 6500 HB Nijmegen, The Netherlands
Department of Nuclear Medicine, University of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 400, Heidelberg 69120, Germany
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 20 May 2013; in revised form: 21 June 2013 / Accepted: 21 June 2013 / Published: 3 July 2013
Abstract: Knowledge on lymph node metastases is crucial for the prognosis and treatment of prostate cancer patients. Conventional anatomic imaging often fails to differentiate benign from metastatic lymph nodes. Pelvic lymph node dissection is an invasive technique and underestimates the extent of lymph node metastases. Therefore, there is a need for more accurate non-invasive diagnostic techniques. Molecular and functional imaging has been subject of research for the last decades, in this respect. Therefore, in this article the value of imaging techniques to detect lymph node metastases is reviewed. These techniques include scintigraphy, sentinel node imaging, positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT), diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI MRI) and magnetic resonance lymphography (MRL). Knowledge on pathway and size of lymph node metastases has increased with molecular and functional imaging. Furthermore, improved detection and localization of lymph node metastases will enable (focal) treatment of the positive nodes only.
Keywords: molecular imaging; lymph node metastasis; prostate cancer; choline PET/CT; USPIO; PSMA; sentinel node imaging; DWI MRI; IMRT; SPECT
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Fortuin, A.; de Rooij, M.; Zamecnik, P.; Haberkorn, U.; Barentsz, J. Molecular and Functional Imaging for Detection of Lymph Node Metastases in Prostate Cancer. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14, 13842-13857.
Fortuin A, de Rooij M, Zamecnik P, Haberkorn U, Barentsz J. Molecular and Functional Imaging for Detection of Lymph Node Metastases in Prostate Cancer. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2013; 14(7):13842-13857.
Fortuin, Ansje; de Rooij, Maarten; Zamecnik, Patrik; Haberkorn, Uwe; Barentsz, Jelle. 2013. "Molecular and Functional Imaging for Detection of Lymph Node Metastases in Prostate Cancer." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 14, no. 7: 13842-13857.