Next Article in Journal
Next Article in Special Issue
Previous Article in Journal
Previous Article in Special Issue
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(7), 13842-13857; doi:10.3390/ijms140713842
Review

Molecular and Functional Imaging for Detection of Lymph Node Metastases in Prostate Cancer

1,* , 1,2
, 1
, 3
 and 1
Received: 20 May 2013; in revised form: 21 June 2013 / Accepted: 21 June 2013 / Published: 3 July 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Research in Urology)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1416 KB, uploaded 19 June 2014]
Abstract: Knowledge on lymph node metastases is crucial for the prognosis and treatment of prostate cancer patients. Conventional anatomic imaging often fails to differentiate benign from metastatic lymph nodes. Pelvic lymph node dissection is an invasive technique and underestimates the extent of lymph node metastases. Therefore, there is a need for more accurate non-invasive diagnostic techniques. Molecular and functional imaging has been subject of research for the last decades, in this respect. Therefore, in this article the value of imaging techniques to detect lymph node metastases is reviewed. These techniques include scintigraphy, sentinel node imaging, positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT), diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI MRI) and magnetic resonance lymphography (MRL). Knowledge on pathway and size of lymph node metastases has increased with molecular and functional imaging. Furthermore, improved detection and localization of lymph node metastases will enable (focal) treatment of the positive nodes only.
Keywords: molecular imaging; lymph node metastasis; prostate cancer; choline PET/CT; USPIO; PSMA; sentinel node imaging; DWI MRI; IMRT; SPECT molecular imaging; lymph node metastasis; prostate cancer; choline PET/CT; USPIO; PSMA; sentinel node imaging; DWI MRI; IMRT; SPECT
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Export to BibTeX |
EndNote


MDPI and ACS Style

Fortuin, A.; de Rooij, M.; Zamecnik, P.; Haberkorn, U.; Barentsz, J. Molecular and Functional Imaging for Detection of Lymph Node Metastases in Prostate Cancer. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14, 13842-13857.

AMA Style

Fortuin A, de Rooij M, Zamecnik P, Haberkorn U, Barentsz J. Molecular and Functional Imaging for Detection of Lymph Node Metastases in Prostate Cancer. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2013; 14(7):13842-13857.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Fortuin, Ansje; de Rooij, Maarten; Zamecnik, Patrik; Haberkorn, Uwe; Barentsz, Jelle. 2013. "Molecular and Functional Imaging for Detection of Lymph Node Metastases in Prostate Cancer." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 14, no. 7: 13842-13857.



Int. J. Mol. Sci. EISSN 1422-0067 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert