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(Healthy) Ageing: Focus on Iodothyronines
Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Ambientali, Biologiche e Farmaceutiche, Seconda Università degli Studi di Napoli, Via Vivaldi 43, Caserta 81100, Italy
Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie, Università degli Studi del Sannio, Via Port'Arsa 11, Benevento 82100, Italy
These authors contributed equally to this work.
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 17 May 2013; in revised form: 13 June 2013 / Accepted: 19 June 2013 / Published: 4 July 2013
Abstract: The activity of the thyroid gland diminishes during ageing, but a certain tissue reserve of T3 and its metabolites is maintained. This reserve is thought to play a regulatory role in energy homeostasis during ageing. This review critically assesses this notion. T3 was thought to act predominantly through pathways that require transcriptional regulation by thyroid hormone receptors (TRs). However, in recent years, it has emerged that T3 and its metabolites can also act through non-genomic mechanisms, including cytosolic signaling. Interestingly, differences may exist in the non-genomic pathways utilized by thyroid hormone metabolites and T3. For instance, one particular thyroid hormone metabolite, namely 3,5-diiodo-L-thyronine (T2), increases the activity of the redox-sensitive protein deacetylase SIRT1, which has been associated with improvements in healthy ageing, whereas evidence exists that T3 may have the opposite effect. Findings suggesting that T3, T2, and their signaling pathways, such as those involving SIRT1 and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), are associated with improvements in diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance emphasize the potential importance of the thyroid during ageing and in ageing-associated metabolic diseases.
Keywords: thyroid; ageing; thyroid hormone action; non-genomic pathways
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de Lange, P.; Cioffi, F.; Silvestri, E.; Moreno, M.; Goglia, F.; Lanni, A. (Healthy) Ageing: Focus on Iodothyronines. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14, 13873-13892.
de Lange P, Cioffi F, Silvestri E, Moreno M, Goglia F, Lanni A. (Healthy) Ageing: Focus on Iodothyronines. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2013; 14(7):13873-13892.
de Lange, Pieter; Cioffi, Federica; Silvestri, Elena; Moreno, Maria; Goglia, Fernando; Lanni, Antonia. 2013. "(Healthy) Ageing: Focus on Iodothyronines." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 14, no. 7: 13873-13892.