Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(7), 13958-13978; doi:10.3390/ijms140713958

Recent Progress in Pharmaceutical Therapies for Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer

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Received: 13 May 2013; in revised form: 19 June 2013 / Accepted: 20 June 2013 / Published: 4 July 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Research in Urology)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: Since 2010, six drugs have been approved for the treatment of castration-resistant prostate cancer, i.e., CYP17 inhibitor Abiraterone, androgen receptor antagonist Enzalutamide, cytotoxic agent Cabazitaxel, vaccine Sipuleucel-T, antibody Denosumab against receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand and radiopharmaceutical Alpharadin. All these drugs demonstrate improvement on overall survival, expect for Denosumab, which increases the bone mineral density of patients under androgen deprivation therapy and prolongs bone-metastasis-free survival. Besides further CYP17 inhibitors (Orteronel, Galeterone, VT-464 and CFG920), androgen receptor antagonists (ARN-509, ODM-201, AZD-3514 and EZN-4176) and vaccine Prostvac, more drug candidates with various mechanisms or new indications of launched drugs are currently under evaluation in different stages of clinical trials, including various kinase inhibitors and platinum complexes. Some novel strategies have also been proposed aimed at further potentiation of antitumor effects or reduction of side effects and complications related to treatments. Under these flourishing circumstances, more investigations should be performed on the optimal combination or the sequence of treatments needed to delay or reverse possible resistance and thus maximize the clinical benefits for the patients.
Keywords: castration-resistant prostate cancer; Abiraterone; Enzalutamide; Cabazitaxel; Sipuleucel-T; Denosumab; Alpharadin
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MDPI and ACS Style

Yin, L.; Hu, Q.; Hartmann, R.W. Recent Progress in Pharmaceutical Therapies for Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14, 13958-13978.

AMA Style

Yin L, Hu Q, Hartmann RW. Recent Progress in Pharmaceutical Therapies for Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2013; 14(7):13958-13978.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Yin, Lina; Hu, Qingzhong; Hartmann, Rolf W. 2013. "Recent Progress in Pharmaceutical Therapies for Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 14, no. 7: 13958-13978.

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