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Role of RNA Interference (RNAi) in the Moss Physcomitrella patens
Department of Molecular Developmental Biology, Nijmegen Center for Molecular Life Sciences, 6500 HB Nijmegen, The Netherlands
Plant Molecular Cell Biology, Department I, Faculty of Biology, Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich, LMU Biocenter, Grosshaderner Strasse 2-4, 82152 Planegg-Martinsried, Germany
Center for Desert Agriculture , Division of Biological and Environmental Sciences and Engineering, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, Thuwal 23955-6900, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
These authors contributed equally to this work.
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 21 November 2012; in revised form: 9 December 2012 / Accepted: 10 December 2012 / Published: 14 January 2013
Abstract: RNA interference (RNAi) is a mechanism that regulates genes by either transcriptional (TGS) or posttranscriptional gene silencing (PTGS), required for genome maintenance and proper development of an organism. Small non-coding RNAs are the key players in RNAi and have been intensively studied in eukaryotes. In plants, several classes of small RNAs with specific sizes and dedicated functions have evolved. The major classes of small RNAs include microRNAs (miRNAs) and small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), which differ in their biogenesis. miRNAs are synthesized from a short hairpin structure while siRNAs are derived from long double-stranded RNAs (dsRNA). Both miRNA and siRNAs control the expression of cognate target RNAs by binding to reverse complementary sequences mediating cleavage or translational inhibition of the target RNA. They also act on the DNA and cause epigenetic changes such as DNA methylation and histone modifications. In the last years, the analysis of plant RNAi pathways was extended to the bryophyte Physcomitrella patens, a non-flowering, non-vascular ancient land plant that diverged from the lineage of seed plants approximately 450 million years ago. Based on a number of characteristic features and its phylogenetic key position in land plant evolution P. patens emerged as a plant model species to address basic as well as applied topics in plant biology. Here we summarize the current knowledge on the role of RNAi in P. patens that shows functional overlap with RNAi pathways from seed plants, and also unique features specific to this species.
Keywords: RNAi; non-coding RNAs; miRNA; siRNA; gene silencing; Physcomitrella patens
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Arif, M.A.; Frank, W.; Khraiwesh, B. Role of RNA Interference (RNAi) in the Moss Physcomitrella patens. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14, 1516-1540.
Arif MA, Frank W, Khraiwesh B. Role of RNA Interference (RNAi) in the Moss Physcomitrella patens. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2013; 14(1):1516-1540.
Arif, Muhammad A.; Frank, Wolfgang; Khraiwesh, Basel. 2013. "Role of RNA Interference (RNAi) in the Moss Physcomitrella patens." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 14, no. 1: 1516-1540.