Next Article in Journal
Role of RNA Interference (RNAi) in the Moss Physcomitrella patens
Previous Article in Journal
Folate-Equipped Nanolipoplexes Mediated Efficient Gene Transfer into Human Epithelial Cells
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(1), 1502-1515; doi:10.3390/ijms14011502

Anthocyanins Downregulate Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammatory Responses in BV2 Microglial Cells by Suppressing the NF-κB and Akt/MAPKs Signaling Pathways

3,4,* , 5
1 Department of Biochemistry, Dongeui University College of Oriental Medicine, Busan 614-052, Korea 2 Anti-Aging Research Center & Blue-Bio Industry RIC, Dongeui University, Busan 614-714, Korea 3 Department of Internal Medicine, Institute of Health Sciences, Gyeongsang National University School of Medicine, Jinju 660-702, Korea 4 Gyeongnam Regional Cancer Center, Gyeongsang National University Hospital, Jinju 660-702, Korea 5 Department of Chemistry, Research Institute of Life Science, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju 660-701, Korea 6 Faculty of Applied Marine Science, Cheju National University, Jeju 690-756, Korea 7 Division of Meridian and Structural Medicine, School of Korean Medicine, Pusan National University, Yangsan 626-870, Korea
* Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 12 December 2012 / Revised: 1 January 2013 / Accepted: 7 January 2013 / Published: 14 January 2013
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [535 KB, uploaded 19 June 2014]   |   Browse Figures


Anthocyanins are naturally occurring polyphenols that impart bright color to fruits, vegetables and plants and have a variety of protective properties, which have generally been attributed to their antioxidant capacity. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying anti-inflammatory effects of anthocyanins related to neurodegenerative diseases. Therefore, we determined whether anthocyanins isolated from black soybean seed coats would inhibit pro-inflammatory mediators and cytokines in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated murine BV2 microglial cells. Our results showed that anthocyanins significantly inhibited LPS-induced pro-inflammatory mediators, such as nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2, and pro-inflammatory cytokines including tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-1β, without significant cytotoxicity. Anthocyanins also downregulated excessive expression of inducible NO synthase, cyclooxygenase-2, TNF-α, and IL-1β in LPS-stimulated BV2 cells. Moreover, anthocyanins inhibited nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) by reducing inhibitor of NF-κB alpha degradation as well as phosphorylating extracellular signal-regulated kinase, c-Jun N-terminal kinase, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, and Akt. These findings suggest that anthocyanins may offer substantial therapeutic potential for treating inflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases accompanied by microglial activation.
Keywords: anthocyanins; BV2; anti-inflammatory activity; NF-κB; MAPK; Akt anthocyanins; BV2; anti-inflammatory activity; NF-κB; MAPK; Akt
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Share & Cite This Article

Further Mendeley | CiteULike
Export to BibTeX |
MDPI and ACS Style

Jeong, J.-W.; Lee, W.S.; Shin, S.C.; Kim, G.-Y.; Choi, B.T.; Choi, Y.H. Anthocyanins Downregulate Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammatory Responses in BV2 Microglial Cells by Suppressing the NF-κB and Akt/MAPKs Signaling Pathways. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14, 1502-1515.

View more citation formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

For more information on the journal, click here


Cited By

[Return to top]
Int. J. Mol. Sci. EISSN 1422-0067 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert