Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(1), 1502-1515; doi:10.3390/ijms14011502
Article

Anthocyanins Downregulate Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammatory Responses in BV2 Microglial Cells by Suppressing the NF-κB and Akt/MAPKs Signaling Pathways

1,2email, 3,4,* email, 5email, 6email, 7email and 1,2,* email
Received: 12 December 2012; in revised form: 1 January 2013 / Accepted: 7 January 2013 / Published: 14 January 2013
(This article belongs to the Section Bioactives and Nutraceuticals)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: Anthocyanins are naturally occurring polyphenols that impart bright color to fruits, vegetables and plants and have a variety of protective properties, which have generally been attributed to their antioxidant capacity. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying anti-inflammatory effects of anthocyanins related to neurodegenerative diseases. Therefore, we determined whether anthocyanins isolated from black soybean seed coats would inhibit pro-inflammatory mediators and cytokines in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated murine BV2 microglial cells. Our results showed that anthocyanins significantly inhibited LPS-induced pro-inflammatory mediators, such as nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2, and pro-inflammatory cytokines including tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-1β, without significant cytotoxicity. Anthocyanins also downregulated excessive expression of inducible NO synthase, cyclooxygenase-2, TNF-α, and IL-1β in LPS-stimulated BV2 cells. Moreover, anthocyanins inhibited nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) by reducing inhibitor of NF-κB alpha degradation as well as phosphorylating extracellular signal-regulated kinase, c-Jun N-terminal kinase, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, and Akt. These findings suggest that anthocyanins may offer substantial therapeutic potential for treating inflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases accompanied by microglial activation.
Keywords: anthocyanins; BV2; anti-inflammatory activity; NF-κB; MAPK; Akt
PDF Full-text Download PDF Full-Text [535 KB, uploaded 19 June 2014 04:38 CEST]

Export to BibTeX |
EndNote


MDPI and ACS Style

Jeong, J.-W.; Lee, W.S.; Shin, S.C.; Kim, G.-Y.; Choi, B.T.; Choi, Y.H. Anthocyanins Downregulate Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammatory Responses in BV2 Microglial Cells by Suppressing the NF-κB and Akt/MAPKs Signaling Pathways. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14, 1502-1515.

AMA Style

Jeong J-W, Lee WS, Shin SC, Kim G-Y, Choi BT, Choi YH. Anthocyanins Downregulate Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammatory Responses in BV2 Microglial Cells by Suppressing the NF-κB and Akt/MAPKs Signaling Pathways. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2013; 14(1):1502-1515.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Jeong, Jin-Woo; Lee, Won S.; Shin, Sung C.; Kim, Gi-Young; Choi, Byung T.; Choi, Yung H. 2013. "Anthocyanins Downregulate Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammatory Responses in BV2 Microglial Cells by Suppressing the NF-κB and Akt/MAPKs Signaling Pathways." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 14, no. 1: 1502-1515.

Int. J. Mol. Sci. EISSN 1422-0067 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert