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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(8), 9478-9488; doi:10.3390/ijms13089478
Article

Effects of High Glucose on Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Synthesis and Secretion in Aortic Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells from Obese and Lean Zucker Rats

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Internal Medicine and Metabolic Disease Unit, Department of Clinical and Biological Sciences, San Luigi Gonzaga Faculty of Medicine of the Turin University, San Luigi Gonzaga Hospital, Orbassano (Turin), 10043, Italy Prof. Giovanni Anfossi died on 9 April 2011.
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 28 April 2012 / Revised: 22 June 2012 / Accepted: 20 July 2012 / Published: 26 July 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Mechanisms of Organ-Specific Toxicity)
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Abstract

Type 1 diabetes is characterized by insulin deficiency, type 2 by both insulin deficiency and insulin resistance: in both conditions, hyperglycaemia is accompanied by an increased cardiovascular risk, due to increased atherosclerotic plaque formation/instabilization and impaired collateral vessel formation. An important factor in these phenomena is the Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF), a molecule produced also by Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells (VSMC). We aimed at evaluating the role of high glucose on VEGF-A164 synthesis and secretion in VSMC from lean insulin-sensitive and obese insulin-resistant Zucker rats (LZR and OZR). In cultured aortic VSMC from LZR and OZR incubated for 24 h with D-glucose (5.5, 15 and 25 mM) or with the osmotic controls L-glucose and mannitol, we measured VEGF-A164 synthesis (western, blotting) and secretion (western blotting and ELISA). We observed that: (i) D-glucose dose-dependently increases VEGF-A164 synthesis and secretion in VSMC from LZR and OZR (n = 6, ANOVA p = 0.002–0.0001); (ii) all the effects of 15 and 25 mM D-glucose are attenuated in VSMC from OZR vs. LZR (p = 0.0001); (iii) L-glucose and mannitol reproduce the VEGF-A164 modulation induced by D-glucose in VSMC from both LZR and OZR. Thus, glucose increases via an osmotic mechanism VEGF synthesis and secretion in VSMC, an effect attenuated in the presence of insulin resistance.
Keywords: vascular endothelial growth factor; vascular smooth muscle cells; glucose; osmotic stress; insulin resistance; diabetes; lean zucker rats; obese zucker rats vascular endothelial growth factor; vascular smooth muscle cells; glucose; osmotic stress; insulin resistance; diabetes; lean zucker rats; obese zucker rats
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Doronzo, G.; Viretto, M.; Russo, I.; Mattiello, L.; Anfossi, G.; Trovati, M. Effects of High Glucose on Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Synthesis and Secretion in Aortic Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells from Obese and Lean Zucker Rats. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13, 9478-9488.

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