Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(8), 9489-9501; doi:10.3390/ijms13089489
Article

Detection of Differential Levels of Proteins in the Urine of Patients with Endometrial Cancer: Analysis Using Two-Dimensional Gel Electrophoresis and O-Glycan Binding Lectin

1 Institute of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603, Malaysia 2 Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603, Malaysia 3 Department of Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603, Malaysia 4 University of Malaya Centre for Proteomics Research, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603, Malaysia
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 7 May 2012; in revised form: 26 June 2012 / Accepted: 2 July 2012 / Published: 27 July 2012
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Abstract: Cancers can cause some proteins to be aberrantly excreted or released in the urine, which can be used as biomarkers. To screen for potential biomarkers for endometrial cancer (ECa), the urinary proteins from patients who were newly diagnosed with early stage ECa and untreated controls were separated using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and followed by image analysis. The altered levels of zinc alpha-2 glycoprotein, alpha 1-acid glycoprotein, and CD59 were detected in the patients compared to the controls. In addition, the urine of the ECa patients was also found to contain relatively lower levels of a fragment of nebulin when the 2-DE separated urinary proteins were probed using champedak galactose binding (CGB) lectin. The different levels of the nebulin fragment were further validated by subjecting the urinary protein samples to CGB lectin affinity chromatography and analysis of the bound fractions by LC-MS/MS. Our data is suggestive of the potential use of the differentially expressed urinary proteins as biomarkers for ECa although this requires further extensive validation on clinically representative populations.
Keywords: endometrial cancer; urine; biomarker; 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis; champedak galactose binding lectin; proteomics

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MDPI and ACS Style

Mu, A.-W.; Lim, B.-K.; Hashim, O.H.; Shuib, A.S. Detection of Differential Levels of Proteins in the Urine of Patients with Endometrial Cancer: Analysis Using Two-Dimensional Gel Electrophoresis and O-Glycan Binding Lectin. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13, 9489-9501.

AMA Style

Mu A-W, Lim B-K, Hashim OH, Shuib AS. Detection of Differential Levels of Proteins in the Urine of Patients with Endometrial Cancer: Analysis Using Two-Dimensional Gel Electrophoresis and O-Glycan Binding Lectin. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2012; 13(8):9489-9501.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Mu, Alan Kang-Wai; Lim, Boon-Kiong; Hashim, Onn Haji; Shuib, Adawiyah Suriza. 2012. "Detection of Differential Levels of Proteins in the Urine of Patients with Endometrial Cancer: Analysis Using Two-Dimensional Gel Electrophoresis and O-Glycan Binding Lectin." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 13, no. 8: 9489-9501.

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