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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(8), 10523-10536; doi:10.3390/ijms130810523
Article

Gender Related Differences in Kidney Injury Induced by Mercury

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Received: 30 June 2012; in revised form: 7 August 2012 / Accepted: 14 August 2012 / Published: 22 August 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Mechanisms of Organ-Specific Toxicity)
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Abstract: The aim of this study was to determine if there are sex-related differences in the acute kidney injury induced by HgCl2 since female rats express lower levels of renal Oat1 and Oat3 (transporters involved in renal uptake of mercury) as compared with males. Control males and females and Hg-treated male and female Wistar rats were employed. Animals were treated with HgCl2 (4 mg/kg body weight (b.w.), intraperitoneal (i.p.)) 18 h before the experiments. HgCl2 induced renal impairment both in male and female rats. However, female rats showed a lower renal impairment than male rats. The observed increase in kidney weight/body weight ratio seen in male and female rats following HgCl2 treatment was less in the female rats. Urine volume and creatinine clearance decreased and Oat5 urinary excretion increased in both males and females, but to a lesser degree in the latter. Urinary alkaline phosphatase (AP) activity and histological parameters were modified in male but not in female rats after HgCl2 administration. These results indicate that the lower Oat1 and Oat3 expression in the kidney of females restricts Hg uptake into renal cells protecting them from this metal toxicity. These gender differences in renal injury induced by mercury are striking and also indicate that Oat1 and Oat3 are among the main transporters responsible for HgCl2-induced renal injury.
Keywords: sex differences; kidneys; organic anion transporters; Oat1; Oat3; acute renal failure; mercuric chloride sex differences; kidneys; organic anion transporters; Oat1; Oat3; acute renal failure; mercuric chloride
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Hazelhoff, M.H.; Bulacio, R.P.; Torres, A.M. Gender Related Differences in Kidney Injury Induced by Mercury. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13, 10523-10536.

AMA Style

Hazelhoff MH, Bulacio RP, Torres AM. Gender Related Differences in Kidney Injury Induced by Mercury. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2012; 13(8):10523-10536.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Hazelhoff, María H.; Bulacio, Romina P.; Torres, Adriana M. 2012. "Gender Related Differences in Kidney Injury Induced by Mercury." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 13, no. 8: 10523-10536.



Int. J. Mol. Sci. EISSN 1422-0067 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert