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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(11), 14606-14622; doi:10.3390/ijms131114606
Review

Roles of Nitric Oxide and Asymmetric Dimethylarginine in Pregnancy and Fetal Programming

1,2,†
, 3,4,†
, 5
 and 1,6,*
1 Department of Pediatrics, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung 800, Taiwan 2 Department of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Chang Gung University, Linkow 333, Taiwan 3 Department of Pediatric Surgery, Pingtung Christian Hospital, Pingtung 900, Taiwan 4 Department of Nursing, MeiHo University, Pingtung 900, Taiwan 5 Department of Anesthesiology, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung 800, Taiwan 6 Center for Translational Research in Biomedical Sciences, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung 800, Taiwan These authors contributed equally to this work.
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 12 July 2012 / Revised: 17 October 2012 / Accepted: 7 November 2012 / Published: 9 November 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue ADMA and Nitrergic System)
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Abstract

Nitric oxide (NO) regulates placental blood flow and actively participates in trophoblast invasion and placental development. Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) can inhibit NO synthase, which generates NO. ADMA has been associated with uterine artery flow disturbances such as preeclampsia. Substantial experimental evidence has reliably supported the hypothesis that an adverse in utero environment plays a role in postnatal physiological and pathophysiological programming. Growing evidence suggests that the placental nitrergic system is involved in epigenetic fetal programming. In this review, we discuss the roles of NO and ADMA in normal and compromised pregnancies as well as the link between placental insufficiency and epigenetic fetal programming.
Keywords: asymmetric dimethylarginine; Nitric oxide; nitrergic; fetal programming; placenta asymmetric dimethylarginine; Nitric oxide; nitrergic; fetal programming; placenta
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Huang, L.-T.; Hsieh, C.-S.; Chang, K.-A.; Tain, Y.-L. Roles of Nitric Oxide and Asymmetric Dimethylarginine in Pregnancy and Fetal Programming. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13, 14606-14622.

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