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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(11), 14579-14605; doi:10.3390/ijms131114579
Review

Glatiramer Acetate in Treatment of Multiple Sclerosis: A Toolbox of Random Co-Polymers for Targeting Inflammatory Mechanisms of both the Innate and Adaptive Immune System?

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Received: 29 September 2012; in revised form: 23 October 2012 / Accepted: 5 November 2012 / Published: 9 November 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in the Research of Multiple Sclerosis)
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Abstract: Multiple sclerosis is a disease of the central nervous system, resulting in the demyelination of neurons, causing mild to severe symptoms. Several anti-inflammatory treatments now play a significant role in ameliorating the disease. Glatiramer acetate (GA) is a formulation of random polypeptide copolymers for the treatment of relapsing-remitting MS by limiting the frequency of attacks. While evidence suggests the influence of GA on inflammatory responses, the targeted molecular mechanisms remain poorly understood. Here, we review the multiple pharmacological modes-of-actions of glatiramer acetate in treatment of multiple sclerosis. We discuss in particular a newly discovered interaction between the leukocyte-expressed integrin αMβ2 (also called Mac-1, complement receptor 3, or CD11b/CD18) and perspectives on the GA co-polymers as an influence on the function of the innate immune system.
Keywords: glatiramer acetate; copaxone; biosimilar; integrin; immunotherapy glatiramer acetate; copaxone; biosimilar; integrin; immunotherapy
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Jalilian, B.; Einarsson, H.B.; Vorup-Jensen, T. Glatiramer Acetate in Treatment of Multiple Sclerosis: A Toolbox of Random Co-Polymers for Targeting Inflammatory Mechanisms of both the Innate and Adaptive Immune System? Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13, 14579-14605.

AMA Style

Jalilian B, Einarsson HB, Vorup-Jensen T. Glatiramer Acetate in Treatment of Multiple Sclerosis: A Toolbox of Random Co-Polymers for Targeting Inflammatory Mechanisms of both the Innate and Adaptive Immune System? International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2012; 13(11):14579-14605.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Jalilian, Babak; Einarsson, Halldór B.; Vorup-Jensen, Thomas. 2012. "Glatiramer Acetate in Treatment of Multiple Sclerosis: A Toolbox of Random Co-Polymers for Targeting Inflammatory Mechanisms of both the Innate and Adaptive Immune System?" Int. J. Mol. Sci. 13, no. 11: 14579-14605.



Int. J. Mol. Sci. EISSN 1422-0067 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert