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Interactions of Antibiotics and Methanolic Crude Extracts of Afzelia Africana (Smith.) Against Drug Resistance Bacterial Isolates
Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, North-West University, Potchefstroom 2520, South Africa
Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, University of Fort Hare, Alice 5700, South Africa
Department of Botany, University of Fort Hare, Alice 5700, South Africa
Department of Microbiology Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile Ife 23436, Nigeria
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 3 May 2011; in revised form: 9 June 2011 / Accepted: 4 July 2011 / Published: 13 July 2011
Abstract: Infection due to multidrug resistance pathogens is difficult to manage due to bacterial virulence factors and because of a relatively limited choice of antimicrobial agents. Thus, it is imperative to discover fresh antimicrobials or new practices that are effective for the treatment of infectious diseases caused by drug-resistant microorganisms. The objective of this experiment is to investigate for synergistic outcomes when crude methanolic extract of the stem bark of Afzelia africana and antibiotics were combined against a panel of antibiotic resistant bacterial strains that have been implicated in infections. Standard microbiological protocols were used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of the extract and antibiotics, as well as to investigate the effect of combinations of the methanolic extract of A. africana stem bark and selected antibiotics using the time-kill assay method. The extract of Afzelia africana exhibited antibacterial activities against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria made up of environmental and standard strains at a screening concentration of 5 mg/mL. The MICs of the crude extracts and the antibiotics varied between 1 μg/mL and 5.0 mg/mL. Overall, synergistic response constituted about 63.79% of all manner of combinations of extract and antibiotics against all test organisms; antagonism was not detected among the 176 tests carried out. The extract from A. africana stem bark showed potentials of synergy in combination with antibiotics against strains of pathogenic bacteria. The detection of synergy between the extract and antibiotics demonstrates the potential of this plant as a source of antibiotic resistance modulating compounds.
Keywords: Afzelia Africana; synergy; antibiotics; extract; drug-resistant; microorganisms
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MDPI and ACS Style
Aiyegoro, O.; Adewusi, A.; Oyedemi, S.; Akinpelu, D.; Okoh, A. Interactions of Antibiotics and Methanolic Crude Extracts of Afzelia Africana (Smith.) Against Drug Resistance Bacterial Isolates. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12, 4477-4487.
Aiyegoro O, Adewusi A, Oyedemi S, Akinpelu D, Okoh A. Interactions of Antibiotics and Methanolic Crude Extracts of Afzelia Africana (Smith.) Against Drug Resistance Bacterial Isolates. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2011; 12(7):4477-4487.
Aiyegoro, Olayinka; Adewusi, Adekanmi; Oyedemi, Sunday; Akinpelu, David; Okoh, Anthony. 2011. "Interactions of Antibiotics and Methanolic Crude Extracts of Afzelia Africana (Smith.) Against Drug Resistance Bacterial Isolates." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 12, no. 7: 4477-4487.