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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2009, 10(6), 2510-2557; doi:10.3390/ijms10062510

Trends in the Molecular Pathogenesis and Clinical Therapeutics of Common Neurodegenerative Disorders

1
University of the Witwatersrand, Department of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, 7 York Road, Parktown, 2193, Johannesburg, South Africa
2
University of the Witwatersrand, Department of Neurology, 7 York Road, Parktown, 2193, Johannesburg, South Africa
3
University of the Witwatersrand, Department of Neurosurgery, 7 York Road, Parktown, 2193, Johannesburg, South Africa
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 22 April 2009 / Revised: 28 April 2009 / Accepted: 5 May 2009 / Published: 3 June 2009
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Molecular Neuropathology)
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Abstract

The term neurodegenerative disorders, encompasses a variety of underlying conditions, sporadic and/or familial and are characterized by the persistent loss of neuronal subtypes. These disorders can disrupt molecular pathways, synapses, neuronal subpopulations and local circuits in specific brain regions, as well as higher-order neural networks. Abnormal network activities may result in a vicious cycle, further impairing the integrity and functions of neurons and synapses, for example, through aberrant excitation or inhibition. The most common neurodegenerative disorders are Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Huntington’s disease. The molecular features of these disorders have been extensively researched and various unique neurotherapeutic interventions have been developed. However, there is an enormous coercion to integrate the existing knowledge in order to intensify the reliability with which neurodegenerative disorders can be diagnosed and treated. The objective of this review article is therefore to assimilate these disorders’ in terms of their neuropathology, neurogenetics, etiology, trends in pharmacological treatment, clinical management, and the use of innovative neurotherapeutic interventions.
Keywords: Parkinson’s disease; Alzheimer’s disease; Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis; Huntington’s disease; neuropathology; amyloid-β protein; Tau; Huntingtin; α-Synuclein; neurotherapeutics; drug delivery Parkinson’s disease; Alzheimer’s disease; Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis; Huntington’s disease; neuropathology; amyloid-β protein; Tau; Huntingtin; α-Synuclein; neurotherapeutics; drug delivery
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Choonara, Y.E.; Pillay, V.; Du Toit, L.C.; Modi, G.; Naidoo, D.; Ndesendo, V.M.; Sibambo, S.R. Trends in the Molecular Pathogenesis and Clinical Therapeutics of Common Neurodegenerative Disorders. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2009, 10, 2510-2557.

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