Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2009, 10(4), 1872-1895; doi:10.3390/ijms10041872
Article

Hereditary and Sporadic Forms of Aβ-Cerebrovascular Amyloidosis and Relevant Transgenic Mouse Models

1, 2, 3email
Received: 16 January 2009; in revised form: 14 April 2009 / Accepted: 20 April 2009 / Published: 23 April 2009
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Molecular Neuropathology)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) refers to the specific deposition of amyloid fibrils in the leptomeningeal and cerebral blood vessel walls, often causing secondary vascular degenerative changes. Although many kinds of peptides are known to be deposited as vascular amyloid, amyloid-β (Aβ)-CAA is the most common type associated with normal aging, sporadic CAA, Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and Down’s syndrome. Moreover, Aβ-CAA is also associated with rare hereditary cerebrovascular amyloidosis due to mutations within the Aβ domain of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) such as Dutch and Flemish APP mutations. Genetics and clinicopathological studies on these familial diseases as well as sporadic conditions have already shown that CAA not only causes haemorrhagic and ischemic strokes, but also leads to progressive dementia. Transgenic mouse models based on familial AD mutations have also successfully reproduced many of the features found in human disease, providing us with important insights into the pathogenesis of CAA. Importantly, such studies have pointed out that specific vastopic Aβ variants or an unaltered Aβ42/Aβ40 ratio favor vascular Aβ deposition over parenchymal plaques, but higher than critical levels of Aβ40 are also observed to be anti-amyloidogenic. These data would be important in the development of therapies targeting amyloid in vessels.
Keywords: Alzheimer’s disease; cerebrovascular amyloidosis; CAA; dense-core plaques; senile plaques; amyloid β protein; transgenic mice; pathogenesis; therapy
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kumar-Singh, S. Hereditary and Sporadic Forms of Aβ-Cerebrovascular Amyloidosis and Relevant Transgenic Mouse Models. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2009, 10, 1872-1895.

AMA Style

Kumar-Singh S. Hereditary and Sporadic Forms of Aβ-Cerebrovascular Amyloidosis and Relevant Transgenic Mouse Models. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2009; 10(4):1872-1895.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kumar-Singh, Samir. 2009. "Hereditary and Sporadic Forms of Aβ-Cerebrovascular Amyloidosis and Relevant Transgenic Mouse Models." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 10, no. 4: 1872-1895.

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