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Molecules 2017, 22(8), 1261; doi:10.3390/molecules22081261

Distinct Mechanisms of Biotic and Chemical Elicitors Enable Additive Elicitation of the Anticancer Phytoalexin Glyceollin I

1
Department of Biology, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506, USA
2
Division of Plant and Soil Sciences, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506, USA
These Authors contributed equally to this article.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 16 June 2017 / Accepted: 25 July 2017 / Published: 27 July 2017
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Abstract

Phytoalexins are metabolites biosynthesized in plants in response to pathogen, environmental, and chemical stresses that often have potent bioactivities, rendering them promising for use as therapeutics or scaffolds for pharmaceutical development. Glyceollin I is an isoflavonoid phytoalexin from soybean that exhibits potent anticancer activities and is not economical to synthesize. Here, we tested a range of source tissues from soybean, in addition to chemical and biotic elicitors, to understand how to enhance the bioproduction of glyceollin I. Combining the inorganic chemical silver nitrate (AgNO3) with the wall glucan elicitor (WGE) from the soybean pathogen Phytophthora sojae had an additive effect on the elicitation of soybean seeds, resulting in a yield of up to 745.1 µg gt−1 glyceollin I. The additive elicitation suggested that the biotic and chemical elicitors acted largely by separate mechanisms. WGE caused a major accumulation of phytoalexin gene transcripts, whereas AgNO3 inhibited and enhanced the degradation of glyceollin I and 6″-O-malonyldaidzin, respectively. View Full-Text
Keywords: bioproduction; phytoalexin; isoflavonoid; glyceollin; soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] bioproduction; phytoalexin; isoflavonoid; glyceollin; soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.]
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Farrell, K.; Jahan, M.A.; Kovinich, N. Distinct Mechanisms of Biotic and Chemical Elicitors Enable Additive Elicitation of the Anticancer Phytoalexin Glyceollin I. Molecules 2017, 22, 1261.

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