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Molecules 2017, 22(8), 1252; doi:10.3390/molecules22081252

A Lanosteryl Triterpene from Protorhus longifolia Improves Glucose Tolerance and Pancreatic Beta Cell Ultrastructure in Type 2 Diabetic Rats

1
Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, University of Zululand, KwaDlangezwa 3886, South Africa
2
Biomedical Research and innovation Platform (BRIP), South African Medical Research Council, Tygerberg 7505, South Africa
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 21 June 2017 / Revised: 21 July 2017 / Accepted: 24 July 2017 / Published: 26 July 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Products and Chronic Diseases)
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Abstract

Type 2 diabetes remains one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Persistent hyperglycemia within a diabetic state is implicated in the generation of oxidative stress and aggravated inflammation that is responsible for accelerated modification of pancreatic beta cell structure. Here we investigated whether a lanosteryl triterpene, methyl-3β-hydroxylanosta-9,24-dien-21-oate (RA-3), isolated from Protorhus longifolia can improve glucose tolerance and pancreatic beta cell ultrastructure by reducing oxidative stress and inflammation in high fat diet and streptozotocin-induced type 2 diabetes in rats. In addition to impaired glucose tolerance, the untreated diabetic rats showed increased fasting plasma glucose and C-peptide levels. These untreated diabetic rats further demonstrated raised cholesterol, interleukin-6 (IL-6), and lipid peroxidation levels as well as a destroyed beta cell ultrastructure. Treatment with RA-3 was as effective as metformin in improving glucose tolerance and antioxidant effect in the diabetic rats. Interestingly, RA-3 displayed a slightly more enhanced effect than metformin in reducing elevated IL-6 levels and in improving beta cell ultrastructure. Although the involved molecular mechanisms remain to be established, RA-3 demonstrates a strong potential to improve pancreatic beta cell ultrastructure by attenuating impaired glucose tolerance, reducing oxidative stress and inflammation. View Full-Text
Keywords: type 2 diabetes; hyperglycemia; hyperlipidemia; oxidative stress; inflammation; pancreatic beta cells; antioxidants; triterpenes; Protorhus longifolia type 2 diabetes; hyperglycemia; hyperlipidemia; oxidative stress; inflammation; pancreatic beta cells; antioxidants; triterpenes; Protorhus longifolia
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MDPI and ACS Style

Mabhida, S.E.; Mosa, R.A.; Penduka, D.; Osunsanmi, F.O.; Dludla, P.V.; Djarova, T.G.; Opoku, A.R. A Lanosteryl Triterpene from Protorhus longifolia Improves Glucose Tolerance and Pancreatic Beta Cell Ultrastructure in Type 2 Diabetic Rats. Molecules 2017, 22, 1252.

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