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Molecules 2017, 22(7), 1163; doi:10.3390/molecules22071163

Myrcia splendens (Sw.) DC. (syn. M. fallax (Rich.) DC.) (Myrtaceae) Essential Oil from Amazonian Ecuador: A Chemical Characterization and Bioactivity Profile

1
Department of Earth Science, Universidad Estatal Amazónica, Puyo 160106, Ecuador
2
Department of Life Sciences and Biotechnology (SVeB), UR7 Terra&Acqua Tech, University of Ferrara, Ferrara 44121, Italy
3
Department of Life Science, Universidad Estatal Amazónica, Puyo 160106, Ecuador
4
Department of Life Sciences, Universidad Politécnica Salesiana, Quito 170525, Ecuador
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 30 May 2017 / Revised: 30 June 2017 / Accepted: 6 July 2017 / Published: 12 July 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Essential Oils: Chemistry and Bioactivity)
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Abstract

In this study, we performed the chemical characterization of Myrcia splendens (Sw.) DC. (Myrtaceae) essential oil from Amazonian Ecuador and the assessment of its bioactivity in terms of cytotoxic, antibacterial, and antioxidant activity as starting point for possible applicative uses. M. splendens essential oil, obtained by hydro-distillation, was analyzed by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) and Gas Chromatography-Flame Ionization Detector (GC-FID): the major components were found to be trans-nerolidol (67.81%) and α-bisabolol (17.51%). Furthermore, we assessed the cytotoxic activity against MCF-7 (breast), A549 (lung) human tumor cell lines, and HaCaT (human keratinocytes) non-tumor cell line through 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2-H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) test: promising results in terms of selectivity and efficacy against the MCF-7 cell line (IC50 of 5.59 ± 0.13 μg/mL at 48 h) were obtained, mainly due to α-bisabolol. Furthermore, antibacterial activity against Gram positive and negative bacteria were performed through High Performance Thin Layer Chromatography (HPTLC) bioautographic assay and microdilution method: trans-nerolidol and β-cedren-9-one were the main molecules responsible for the low antibacterial effects against human pathogens. Nevertheless, interesting values of Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) were noticeable against phytopathogen strains. Radical scavenging activity performed by HPTLC bioautographic and spectrophotometric 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) approaches were negligible. In conclusion, the essential oil revealed a good potential for plant defense and anti-cancer applications. View Full-Text
Keywords: Myrcia splendens; essential oil; cytotoxic activity; antibacterial activity; antioxidant activity; bioautographic assay Myrcia splendens; essential oil; cytotoxic activity; antibacterial activity; antioxidant activity; bioautographic assay
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MDPI and ACS Style

Scalvenzi, L.; Grandini, A.; Spagnoletti, A.; Tacchini, M.; Neill, D.; Ballesteros, J.L.; Sacchetti, G.; Guerrini, A. Myrcia splendens (Sw.) DC. (syn. M. fallax (Rich.) DC.) (Myrtaceae) Essential Oil from Amazonian Ecuador: A Chemical Characterization and Bioactivity Profile. Molecules 2017, 22, 1163.

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