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Molecules 2017, 22(7), 1164; doi:10.3390/molecules22071164

Extraction of Pathogenesis-Related Proteins and Phenolics in Sauvignon Blanc as Affected by Grape Harvesting and Processing Conditions

1
Faculty of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Lincoln University, Lincoln 7647, New Zealand
2
Marlborough Research Centre, New Zealand Institute for Plant and Food Research Ltd., Blenheim 7240, New Zealand
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: David Jeffery and Paul Smith
Received: 27 June 2017 / Revised: 10 July 2017 / Accepted: 10 July 2017 / Published: 12 July 2017
(This article belongs to the Collection Wine Chemistry)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [408 KB, uploaded 12 July 2017]   |  

Abstract

Thaumatin-like proteins (TLPs) and chitinases are the two main groups of pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins found in wine that cause protein haze formation. Previous studies have found that phenolics are also involved in protein haze formation. In this study, Sauvignon Blanc grapes were harvested and processed in two vintages (2011 and 2012) by three different treatments: (1) hand harvesting with whole bunch press (H-WB); (2) hand harvesting with destem/crush and 3 h skin contact (H-DC-3); and (3) machine harvesting with destem/crush and 3 h skin contact (M-DC-3). The juices were collected at three pressure levels (0.4 MPa, 0.8 MPa and 1.6 MPa), some juices were fermented in 750 mL of wine bottles to determine the bentonite requirement for the resulting wines. Results showed juices of M-DC-3 had significantly lower concentration of proteins, including PR proteins, compared to those of H-DC-3, likely due to the greater juice yield of M-DC-3 and interactions between proteins and phenolics. Juices from the 0.8–1.6 MPa pressure and resultant wines had the highest concentration of phenolics but the lowest concentration of TLPs. This supported the view that TLPs are released at low pressure as they are mainly present in grape pulp but additional extraction of phenolics largely present in skin occurs at higher pressing pressure. Wine protein stability tests showed a positive linear correlation between bentonite requirement and the concentration of chitinases, indicating the possibility of predicting bentonite requirement by quantification of chitinases. This study contributes to an improved understanding of extraction of haze-forming PR proteins and phenolics that can influence bentonite requirement for protein stabilization. View Full-Text
Keywords: bentonite; harvesting; pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins; phenolics; processing bentonite; harvesting; pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins; phenolics; processing
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Tian, B.; Harrison, R.; Morton, J.; Jaspers, M.; Hodge, S.; Grose, C.; Trought, M. Extraction of Pathogenesis-Related Proteins and Phenolics in Sauvignon Blanc as Affected by Grape Harvesting and Processing Conditions. Molecules 2017, 22, 1164.

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