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Molecules 2017, 22(5), 778; doi:10.3390/molecules22050778

Sulfated Alginates as Heparin Analogues: A Review of Chemical and Functional Properties

1
Department of Biotechnology and Nanomedicine, SINTEF Materials and Chemistry, Richard Birkelands vei 3B, 7034 Trondheim, Norway
2
Department of Biotechnology, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Sem Sælands vei 6/8, 7034 Trondheim, Norway
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Giangiacomo Torri
Received: 5 April 2017 / Revised: 3 May 2017 / Accepted: 5 May 2017 / Published: 11 May 2017
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Abstract

Heparin is widely recognized for its potent anticoagulating effects, but has an additional wide range of biological properties due to its high negative charge and heterogeneous molecular structure. This heterogeneity has been one of the factors in motivating the exploration of functional analogues with a more predictable modification pattern and monosaccharide sequence, that can aid in elucidating structure-function relationships and further be structurally customized to fine-tune physical and biological properties toward novel therapeutic applications and biomaterials. Alginates have been of great interest in biomedicine due to their inherent biocompatibility, gentle gelling conditions, and structural versatility from chemo-enzymatic engineering, but display limited interactions with cells and biomolecules that are characteristic of heparin and the other glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) of the extracellular environment. Here, we review the chemistry and physical and biological properties of sulfated alginates as structural and functional heparin analogues, and discuss how they may be utilized in applications where the use of heparin and other sulfated GAGs is challenging and limited. View Full-Text
Keywords: heparin; alginate; sulfated alginate; biomaterials heparin; alginate; sulfated alginate; biomaterials
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Arlov, Ø.; Skjåk-Bræk, G. Sulfated Alginates as Heparin Analogues: A Review of Chemical and Functional Properties. Molecules 2017, 22, 778.

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