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New Applications of Heparin and Other Glycosaminoglycans
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Molecules 2017, 22(5), 768; doi:10.3390/molecules22050768

A Fluorescent Probe for Glycosaminoglycans Applied to the Detection of Dermatan Sulfate by a Mix-and-Read Assay

Inorganic Chemistry Institute, Heidelberg University, Im Neuenheimer Feld 270, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany
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Academic Editors: Giangiacomo Torri and Jawed Fareed
Received: 12 April 2017 / Revised: 28 April 2017 / Accepted: 2 May 2017 / Published: 9 May 2017
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Abstract

Glycosaminoglycans are complex biomolecules of great biological and medical importance. The quantification of glycosaminoglycans, in particular in complex matrices, is challenging due to their inherent structural heterogeneity. Heparin Red, a polycationic, fluorescent perylene diimide derivative, has recently emerged as a commercial probe for the convenient detection of heparins by a mix-and-read fluorescence assay. The probe also detects glycosaminoglycans with a lower negative charge density than heparin, although with lower sensitivity. We describe here the synthesis and characterization of a structurally related molecular probe with a higher positive charge of +10 (vs. +8 of Heparin Red). The superior performance of this probe is exemplified by the quantification of low dermatan sulfate concentrations in an aqueous matrix (quantification limit 1 ng/mL) and the detection of dermatan sulfate in blood plasma in a clinically relevant concentration range. The potential applications of this probe include monitoring the blood levels of dermatan sulfate after administration as an antithrombotic drug in the absence of heparin and other glycosaminoglycans. View Full-Text
Keywords: perylene diimide dyes; dermatan sulfate; fluorescent probe; Heparin Red; assay; dermatan sulfate; human plasma perylene diimide dyes; dermatan sulfate; fluorescent probe; Heparin Red; assay; dermatan sulfate; human plasma
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Rappold, M.; Warttinger, U.; Krämer, R. A Fluorescent Probe for Glycosaminoglycans Applied to the Detection of Dermatan Sulfate by a Mix-and-Read Assay. Molecules 2017, 22, 768.

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