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Molecules 2017, 22(5), 766; doi:10.3390/molecules22050766

Impact of a Microbial Cocktail Used as a Starter Culture on Cocoa Fermentation and Chocolate Flavor

1
Post-Graduate Program in Food Science, Federal University of Lavras, Lavras 37.200-000, Minas Gerais, Brazil
2
Post-Graduate Program in Agricultural Microbiology, Federal University of Lavras, Lavras 37.200-000, Minas Gerais, Brazil
3
Department of Chemical Sciences and Natural Resources, Centro de Excelencia en Investigación Biotecnológica Aplicada al Medio Ambiente (CIBAMA), Scientific and Technological Bioresource Nucleus (BIOREN), Universidad de La Frontera, Temuco 4811-230, Chile
4
CEB-Centre of Biological Engineering, Micoteca da Universidade do Minho, University of Minho, 4710-057 Braga, Portugal
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Luca Forti
Received: 29 January 2017 / Revised: 12 April 2017 / Accepted: 2 May 2017 / Published: 9 May 2017
(This article belongs to the Collection Recent Advances in Flavors and Fragrances)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [17805 KB, uploaded 18 May 2017]   |  

Abstract

Chocolate production suffered a vast impact with the emergence of the “witches’ broom” disease in cocoa plants. To recover cocoa production, many disease-resistant hybrid plants have been developed. However, some different cocoa hybrids produce cocoa beans that generate chocolate with variable quality. Fermentation of cocoa beans is a microbiological process that can be applied for the production of chocolate flavor precursors, leading to overcoming the problem of variable chocolate quality. The aim of this work was to use a cocktail of microorganisms as a starter culture on the fermentation of the ripe cocoa pods from PH15 cocoa hybrid, and evaluate its influence on the microbial communities present on the fermentative process on the compounds involved during the fermentation, and to perform the chocolate sensorial characterization. According to the results obtained, different volatile compounds were identified in fermented beans and in the chocolate produced. Bitterness was the dominant taste found in non-inoculated chocolate, while chocolate made with inoculated beans showed bitter, sweet, and cocoa tastes. 2,3-Butanediol and 2,3-dimethylpyrazine were considered as volatile compounds making the difference on the flavor of both chocolates. Saccharomyces cerevisiae UFLA CCMA 0200, Lactobacillus plantarum CCMA 0238, and Acetobacter pasteurianus CCMA 0241 are proposed as starter cultures for cocoa fermentation. View Full-Text
Keywords: chocolate quality; GC-MS; sensory analysis; culture-independent analysis; starter culture chocolate quality; GC-MS; sensory analysis; culture-independent analysis; starter culture
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Magalhães da Veiga Moreira, I.; de Figueiredo Vilela, L.; da Cruz Pedroso Miguel, M.G.; Santos, C.; Lima, N.; Freitas Schwan, R. Impact of a Microbial Cocktail Used as a Starter Culture on Cocoa Fermentation and Chocolate Flavor. Molecules 2017, 22, 766.

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