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Molecules 2017, 22(10), 1594; doi:10.3390/molecules22101594

Therapeutic Mechanisms of Vernonia amygdalina Delile in the Treatment of Prostate Cancer

Natural Chemotherapeutics Research Laboratory, NIH-RCMI Center for Environmental Health College of Science, Engineering and Technology, Jackson State University, 1400 Lynch Street, P.O. Box 18540, Jackson, MS 39217, USA
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Received: 28 August 2017 / Revised: 19 September 2017 / Accepted: 19 September 2017 / Published: 22 September 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Products: Anticancer Potential and Beyond)
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Abstract

Prostate cancer patients have been suffering from limited treatment options due to late diagnosis, poor drug tolerance, and multi-drug resistance to almost all the current drug treatments. Therefore, it is important to seek a new alternative therapeutic medicine that can effectively prevent the disease and even eradicate the progression and metastasis of prostate cancer. Vernonia amygdalina Delile (VAD) is a common edible vegetable in Cameroon that has been used as a traditional medicine for some human diseases. However, to the best of our knowledge, no previous reports have explored its therapeutic efficacy against human prostate cancer. The objective of the present study was to assess the anticancer activities of VAD methanolic extracts in the prevention and treatment of prostate cancer using human androgen-independent prostate cancer (PC-3) cells as a test model. To achieve our objective, PC-3 cells were treated with various doses of VAD for 48 h. Data generated from the trypan blue test and MTT assay demonstrated that VAD extracts exhibited significant growth-inhibitory effects on PC-3 cells. Collectively, we established for the first time the antiproliferative effects of VAD on PC-3 cells, with an IC50 value of about 196.6 µg/mL. Further experiments, including cell morphology, lipid peroxidation and comet assays, and apoptosis analysis showed that VAD caused growth-inhibitory effects on PC-3 cells through the induction of cell growth arrest, DNA damage, apoptosis, and necrosis in vitro and may provide protection from oxidative stress diseases as a result of its high antioxidant content. These results provide useful data on the anticancer activities of VAD for prostate cancer and demonstrate the novel possibilities of this medicinal plant for developing prostate cancer therapies. View Full-Text
Keywords: Vernonia amygdalina Delile; PC-3 cells; oxidative stress; DNA damage; apoptosis; necrosis Vernonia amygdalina Delile; PC-3 cells; oxidative stress; DNA damage; apoptosis; necrosis
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Johnson, W.; Tchounwou, P.B.; Yedjou, C.G. Therapeutic Mechanisms of Vernonia amygdalina Delile in the Treatment of Prostate Cancer. Molecules 2017, 22, 1594.

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