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Molecules 2016, 21(9), 1150; doi:10.3390/molecules21091150

Chemical Composition, Antioxidant, and Antibacterial Activity of Wood Vinegar from Litchi chinensis

1
Department of Chemical Engineering and Institute of Biotechnology and Chemical Engineering, I-Shou University, Kaohsiung 840, Taiwan
2
Department of Electronic Engineering, National Kaohsiung University of Applied Sciences, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Thomas Efferth
Received: 12 July 2016 / Revised: 16 August 2016 / Accepted: 24 August 2016 / Published: 30 August 2016
(This article belongs to the Collection Herbal Medicine Research)
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Abstract

The antioxidant and antibacterial activities of wood vinegar from Litchi chinensis, and its components have been studied. The chemical compositions of wood vinegar were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A total of 17 chemical compounds were identified, representing 83.96% of the compositions in the wood vinegar. Three major components, included 2,6-dimethoxyphenol (syringol, 29.54%), 2-methoxyphenol (guaiacol, 12.36%), and 3,5-dimethoxy-4-hydroxytoluene (11.07%), were found in the wood vinegar. Antioxidant activities of the acids were investigated from the aspects of 1,1-Diphyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radicals scavenging capacity, superoxide anion radical scavenging capacity, and reducing power. The pyroligneous acid exhibited high antioxidant activity which was comparable to the reference standards (vitamin C and butylated hydroxyl toluene) at the same dose with IC50 values of 36.5 ppm calculated by the DPPH radical scavenging assay, 38.38 g Trolox equivalent/100 g DW by the trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assay, and 67.9 by the reducing power analysis. Antibacterial activity was evaluated using the disc diffusion and microdilution methods against a group of clinically antibiotic resistant isolates. The major components exhibited broad spectrum inhibition against all the bacterial strains with a range of disc inhibition zoon between 15–19 mm. The minimum inhibition concentration and minimum bactericide concentration against the test strains was ranging in 0.95–3.80 μL/100 μL and 1.90–3.80 μL/100 μL, respectively. Most of the antibiotic resistant strains were more susceptible to the wood vinegar than the non-antibiotic resistant strain except the strain of ornithine resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Based on the chemical profile, it was considered that the strongest antioxidant and antibacterial activity of Litchi chinensis wood vinegar was due to its highly phenolic compositions. This study revealed that the Litchi chinensis wood vinegar is valuable to develop as alternative food antioxidant and antibiotics. View Full-Text
Keywords: Litchi chinensis wood vinegar; gas chromatography-mass spectrometry; antibacterial activity; antioxidant activity Litchi chinensis wood vinegar; gas chromatography-mass spectrometry; antibacterial activity; antioxidant activity
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MDPI and ACS Style

Yang, J.-F.; Yang, C.-H.; Liang, M.-T.; Gao, Z.-J.; Wu, Y.-W.; Chuang, L.-Y. Chemical Composition, Antioxidant, and Antibacterial Activity of Wood Vinegar from Litchi chinensis. Molecules 2016, 21, 1150.

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