Tomato Aqueous Extract Modulates the Inflammatory Profile of Immune Cells and Endothelial Cells
AbstractNutrients transiently or chronically modulate functional and biochemical characteristics of cells and tissues both in vivo and in vitro. The influence of tomato aqueous extract (TAE) on the in vitro inflammatory response of activated human peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs) and macrophages was investigated. Its effect on endothelial dysfunction (ED) was analyzed in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Murine macrophages (RAW264.7 cells), PBLs and HUVECs were incubated with TAE. They were activated with LPS or TNF-α in order to induce inflammatory processes and ED, respectively. Inflammatory mediators and adhesion molecules were measured by immune assay-based multiplex analysis. Gene expression was quantified by RT-PCR. TAE altered the production of interleukins (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12) and chemokines (CCL2/MCP-1, CCL3/MIP-1α, CCL5/RANTES, CXCL8/IL-8, CXCL10/IP-10) in PBLs. TAE reduced ED-associated expression of adhesion molecules (ICAM-1, VCAM-1) in endothelial cell. In macrophages, the production of nitric oxide, PGE2, cytokines and ILs (TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-12), which reflects chronic inflammatory processes, was reduced. Adenosine was identified as the main bioactive of TAE. Thus, TAE had cell-specific and context-dependent effects. We infer from these in vitro data, that during acute inflammation TAE enhances cellular alertness and therefore the sensing of disturbed immune homeostasis in the vascular-endothelial compartment. Conversely, it blunts inflammatory mediators in macrophages during chronic inflammation. A novel concept of immune regulation by this extract is proposed. View Full-Text
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Schwager, J.; Richard, N.; Mussler, B.; Raederstorff, D. Tomato Aqueous Extract Modulates the Inflammatory Profile of Immune Cells and Endothelial Cells. Molecules 2016, 21, 168.
Schwager J, Richard N, Mussler B, Raederstorff D. Tomato Aqueous Extract Modulates the Inflammatory Profile of Immune Cells and Endothelial Cells. Molecules. 2016; 21(2):168.Chicago/Turabian Style
Schwager, Joseph; Richard, Nathalie; Mussler, Bernd; Raederstorff, Daniel. 2016. "Tomato Aqueous Extract Modulates the Inflammatory Profile of Immune Cells and Endothelial Cells." Molecules 21, no. 2: 168.
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