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Molecules 2016, 21(2), 168; doi:10.3390/molecules21020168

Tomato Aqueous Extract Modulates the Inflammatory Profile of Immune Cells and Endothelial Cells

DSM Nutritional Products, P. O. Box 2676, Basel 4002, Switzerland
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Academic Editor: Norbert Latruffe
Received: 9 December 2015 / Revised: 13 January 2016 / Accepted: 20 January 2016 / Published: 29 January 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Products and Inflammation)
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Abstract

Nutrients transiently or chronically modulate functional and biochemical characteristics of cells and tissues both in vivo and in vitro. The influence of tomato aqueous extract (TAE) on the in vitro inflammatory response of activated human peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs) and macrophages was investigated. Its effect on endothelial dysfunction (ED) was analyzed in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Murine macrophages (RAW264.7 cells), PBLs and HUVECs were incubated with TAE. They were activated with LPS or TNF-α in order to induce inflammatory processes and ED, respectively. Inflammatory mediators and adhesion molecules were measured by immune assay-based multiplex analysis. Gene expression was quantified by RT-PCR. TAE altered the production of interleukins (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12) and chemokines (CCL2/MCP-1, CCL3/MIP-1α, CCL5/RANTES, CXCL8/IL-8, CXCL10/IP-10) in PBLs. TAE reduced ED-associated expression of adhesion molecules (ICAM-1, VCAM-1) in endothelial cell. In macrophages, the production of nitric oxide, PGE2, cytokines and ILs (TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-12), which reflects chronic inflammatory processes, was reduced. Adenosine was identified as the main bioactive of TAE. Thus, TAE had cell-specific and context-dependent effects. We infer from these in vitro data, that during acute inflammation TAE enhances cellular alertness and therefore the sensing of disturbed immune homeostasis in the vascular-endothelial compartment. Conversely, it blunts inflammatory mediators in macrophages during chronic inflammation. A novel concept of immune regulation by this extract is proposed. View Full-Text
Keywords: chronic inflammation; endothelial dysfunction; human umbilical endothelial vein cells; inflammation; innate immune response; macrophages; nutrients; peripheral blood leukocytes chronic inflammation; endothelial dysfunction; human umbilical endothelial vein cells; inflammation; innate immune response; macrophages; nutrients; peripheral blood leukocytes
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MDPI and ACS Style

Schwager, J.; Richard, N.; Mussler, B.; Raederstorff, D. Tomato Aqueous Extract Modulates the Inflammatory Profile of Immune Cells and Endothelial Cells. Molecules 2016, 21, 168.

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