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Molecules 2016, 21(11), 1531; doi:10.3390/molecules21111531

Natural Deep Eutectic Solvents (NADES) as a Tool for Bioavailability Improvement: Pharmacokinetics of Rutin Dissolved in Proline/Glycine after Oral Administration in Rats: Possible Application in Nutraceuticals

Department of Pharmaceutical and Pharmacological Sciences, University of Padova, Via Marzolo 5, 35131 Padova, Italy
Department of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Trieste, P.le Europa 1, 34127 Trieste, Italy
Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Ljubljana, Askerceva cesta 7, SI-1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Josef Jampilek
Received: 27 September 2016 / Revised: 3 November 2016 / Accepted: 4 November 2016 / Published: 14 November 2016
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There is a need for innovation in plant-derived pharmaceuticals, food supplements and nutraceutical products regarding the use of more eco-sustainable solvents for their extraction. Furthermore, the poor oral bioavailability of several phytochemicals with health promoting effects stimulates the research in the field of pharmaceutical formulations. Natural Deep Eutectic Solvents (NADES) are formed by natural compounds, and can be considered as future solvents being especially useful for the preparation of nutraceuticals and food-grade extracts. In this paper various NADES were prepared using sugars, aminoacids and organic acids. Rutin (quercetin-3-O-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→6))-β-d-glucopyranose) was used as a model compound to study NADES. Moreover, the effect of various eutectic mixtures on rutin’s water solubility was studied. Proline/glutamic acid (2:1) and proline/choline chloride (1:1) mixtures have a solubility comparable to ethanol. The proline/glutamic acid (2:1) eutectic containing rutin was used in a pharmacokinetic study in Balb/c mice while bioavailability was compared to oral dosing of water suspension. Plasmatic levels of rutin were measured by HPLC-MS/MS showing increased levels and longer period of rutin permanence in plasma of NADES treated animals. This paper reports the possible use of non-toxic NADES for pharmaceutical and nutraceutical preparations. View Full-Text
Keywords: NADES; HPLC-MS; rutin; pharmacokinetics NADES; HPLC-MS; rutin; pharmacokinetics

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Faggian, M.; Sut, S.; Perissutti, B.; Baldan, V.; Grabnar, I.; Dall’Acqua, S. Natural Deep Eutectic Solvents (NADES) as a Tool for Bioavailability Improvement: Pharmacokinetics of Rutin Dissolved in Proline/Glycine after Oral Administration in Rats: Possible Application in Nutraceuticals. Molecules 2016, 21, 1531.

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