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Molecules 2016, 21(10), 1390; doi:10.3390/molecules21101390

Structurally Related Monoterpenes p-Cymene, Carvacrol and Thymol Isolated from Essential Oil from Leaves of Lippia sidoides Cham. (Verbenaceae) Protect Mice against Elastase-Induced Emphysema

1
Department of Biological Science, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, Diadema 09913-030, Brazil
2
Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo 01246903, SP, Brazil
3
Department of Exact Science and Earth, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, Diadema 09913-030, Brazil
4
Center of Natural Sciences and Humanities, Federal University of ABC, Santo Andre 09606-045, SP, Brazil
5
Department of Bioscience, Federal University of São Paulo, Campus Baixada Santista, Santos 11015-020, SP, Brazil
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Thomas J. Schmidt
Received: 31 August 2016 / Revised: 4 October 2016 / Accepted: 12 October 2016 / Published: 20 October 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Products and Inflammation)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [4248 KB, uploaded 20 October 2016]   |  

Abstract

Background: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by irreversible airflow obstruction and inflammation. Natural products, such as monoterpenes, displayed anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant activities and can be used as a source of new compounds to COPD treatment. Our aim was to evaluate, in an elastase-induced pulmonary emphysema in mice, the effects of and underlying mechanisms of three related natural monoterpenes (p-cymene, carvacrol and thymol) isolated from essential oil from leaves Lippia sidoides Cham. (Verbenaceae). Methods: Mices received porcine pancreatic elastase (PPE) and were treated with p-cymene, carvacrol, thymol or vehicle 30 min later and again on 7th, 14th and 28th days. Lung inflammatory profile and histological sections were evaluated. Results: In the elastase-instilled animals, the tested monoterpenes reduced alveolar enlargement, macrophages and the levels of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8 and IL-17 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), and collagen fibers, MMP-9 and p-65-NF-κB-positive cells in lung parenchyma (p < 0.05). All treatments attenuated levels of 8-iso-PGF2α but only thymol was able to reduced exhaled nitric oxide (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Monoterpenes p-cymene, carvacrol and thymol reduced lung emphysema and inflammation in mice. No significant differences among the three monoterpenes treatments were found, suggesting that the presence of hydroxyl group in the molecular structure of thymol and carvacrol do not play a central role in the anti-inflammatory effects. View Full-Text
Keywords: COPD; elastase-induced emphysema; monoterpenes; p-cymene; carvacrol; thymol; lung inflammation COPD; elastase-induced emphysema; monoterpenes; p-cymene; carvacrol; thymol; lung inflammation
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Games, E.; Guerreiro, M.; Santana, F.R.; Pinheiro, N.M.; de Oliveira, E.A.; Lopes, F.D.; Olivo, C.R.; Tibério, I.F.; Martins, M.A.; Lago, J.H.G.; Prado, C.M. Structurally Related Monoterpenes p-Cymene, Carvacrol and Thymol Isolated from Essential Oil from Leaves of Lippia sidoides Cham. (Verbenaceae) Protect Mice against Elastase-Induced Emphysema. Molecules 2016, 21, 1390.

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