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Molecules 2015, 20(6), 10604-10621; doi:10.3390/molecules200610604

Antiviral, Antifungal and Antibacterial Activities of a BODIPY-Based Photosensitizer

Department of Chemistry, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695-8204, USA
Department of Biological Sciences, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695-7614, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Peter J. Rutledge
Received: 23 February 2015 / Revised: 30 May 2015 / Accepted: 4 June 2015 / Published: 8 June 2015
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [978 KB, uploaded 8 June 2015]   |  


Antimicrobial photodynamic inactivation (aPDI) employing the BODIPY-based photosensitizer 2,6-diiodo-1,3,5,7-tetramethyl-8-(N-methyl-4-pyridyl)-4,4′-difluoro-boradiazaindacene (DIMPy-BODIPY) was explored in an in vitro assay against six species of bacteria (eight total strains), three species of yeast, and three viruses as a complementary approach to their current drug-based or non-existent treatments. Our best results achieved a noteworthy 5–6 log unit reduction in CFU at 0.1 μM for Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC-2913), methicillin-resistant S. aureus (ATCC-44), and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (ATCC-2320), a 4–5 log unit reduction for Acinetobacter baumannii ATCC-19606 (0.25 μM), multidrug resistant A. baumannii ATCC-1605 (0.1 μM), Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC-97 (0.5 μM), and Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC-2146 (1 μM), and a 3 log unit reduction for Mycobacterium smegmatis mc2155 (ATCC-700084). A 5 log unit reduction in CFU was observed for Candida albicans ATCC-90028 (1 μM) and Cryptococcus neoformans ATCC-64538 (0.5 μM), and a 3 log unit reduction was noted for Candida glabrata ATCC-15545 (1 μM). Infectivity was reduced by 6 log units in dengue 1 (0.1 μM), by 5 log units (0.5 μM) in vesicular stomatitis virus, and by 2 log units (5 μM) in human adenovirus-5. Overall, the results demonstrate that DIMPy-BODIPY exhibits antiviral, antibacterial and antifungal photodynamic inactivation at nanomolar concentrations and short illumination times. View Full-Text
Keywords: photodynamic therapy; singlet oxygen; antibacterial; antiviral; antifungal; photobiocidal photodynamic therapy; singlet oxygen; antibacterial; antiviral; antifungal; photobiocidal

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Carpenter, B.L.; Situ, X.; Scholle, F.; Bartelmess, J.; Weare, W.W.; Ghiladi, R.A. Antiviral, Antifungal and Antibacterial Activities of a BODIPY-Based Photosensitizer. Molecules 2015, 20, 10604-10621.

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