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Molecules 2015, 20(2), 1860-1871; doi:10.3390/molecules20021860

Antimicrobial and Seasonal Evaluation of the Carvacrol-Chemotype Oil from Lippia origanoides Kunth.

1
Programa de Pós-Graduação em Biodiversidade e Biotecnologia da Amazônia Legal, Universidade Federal do Amazonas, 60077-000 Manaus, Brazil
2
Programa de Pós-Graduação em Recursos Naturais da Amazônia, Universidade Federal do Oeste do Pará, 68135-110 Santarém, Brazil
3
Chromatography Laboratory, Research Center for Biomolecules, Industrial University of Santander, Bucaramanga 57, Colombia
4
Programa de Pós-Graduação em Química, Instituto de Ciências Exatas e Naturais, Universidade Federal do Pará, 66075-110 Belém, Brazil
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Isabel Ferreira
Received: 9 December 2014 / Accepted: 14 January 2015 / Published: 23 January 2015
(This article belongs to the Collection Bioactive Compounds)
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Abstract

This study evaluated the influence of seasonal variation on the yield and composition of essential oil of Lippia origanoides occurring in the Middle Rio Amazonas, Brazil, and the impact on its antimicrobial potential. The average oil yield was 1.7% ± 0.2% in the rainy season and 1.6% ± 0.3% in the dry season. Some correlations with climatic parameters were observed. The major components were carvacrol (rainy, 43.5% ± 1.9%; dry, 41.4% ± 2.04%), thymol (rainy, 10.7% ± 1.1%; dry, 10.6% ± 0.9%), p-cymene (rainy, 9.8% ± 0.7%; dry, 10.0% ± 1.4%) and p-methoxythymol (rainy, 9.6% ± 0.8%; dry, 10.4% ± 1.4%). It was found that the antibacterial activity of L. origanoides against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli was little influenced by the changes in oil composition due to seasonal variation. Against S. aureus, the oil Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) value was 1.25 μL/mL over ten months. Against E. coli, the oil MIC values ranged from 0.15 μL/mL to 0.31 μL/mL in different months of the year. The Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) value was 2.5 μL/mL against S. aureus and 1.25 μL/mL against E. coli. The results suggest that the antimicrobial activity identified in the oil remain unchanged for the full year, allowing its medicinal use without any risk of loss or absence of the active principles of the plant. View Full-Text
Keywords: Lippia origanoides; Verbenaceae; salva-do-marajó; essential oil composition; seasonal variation; antimicrobial evaluation Lippia origanoides; Verbenaceae; salva-do-marajó; essential oil composition; seasonal variation; antimicrobial evaluation
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Sarrazin, S.L.F.; da Silva, L.A.; de Assunção, A.P.F.; Oliveira, R.B.; Calao, V.Y.P.; da Silva, R.; Stashenko, E.E.; Maia, J.G.S.; Mourão, R.H.V. Antimicrobial and Seasonal Evaluation of the Carvacrol-Chemotype Oil from Lippia origanoides Kunth.. Molecules 2015, 20, 1860-1871.

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