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Molecules 2015, 20(1), 309-324; doi:10.3390/molecules20010309

Ag+ as a More Effective Elicitor for Production of Tanshinones than Phenolic Acids in Salvia miltiorrhiza Hairy Roots

1
College of Life Science, Zhejiang Sci-Tech University, 928 Second Avenue, Xiasha Higher Education Zone, Hangzhou 310018, Zhejiang, China
2
Tasly R&D Institute, Tasly Holding Group Co. Ltd, Tianjin 300410, China
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Marcello Iriti
Received: 3 October 2014 / Accepted: 5 December 2014 / Published: 24 December 2014
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Abstract

Phenolic acids and tanshinones are two groups of bioactive ingredients in Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge. As a heavy metal elicitor, it has been reported that Ag+ can induce accumulations of both phenolic acids and tanshinones in S. miltiorrhiza hairy roots. In this study, the effects of Ag+ treatment on accumulations of six phenolic acids and four tanshinones in S. miltiorrhiza hairy roots were investigated. To further elucidate the molecular mechanism, expressions of key genes involved in the biosynthesis of these ingredients were also detected. The results showed that although the total phenolic acids content was almost not affected by Ag+, accumulations of rosmarinic acid (RA), caffeic acid and ferulic acid were significantly increased, while accumulations of salvianolic acid B (LAB), danshensu (DSU) and cinnamic acid were decreased. We speculate that LAB probably derived from the branch pathway of DSU biosynthesis. Contents of four tanshinones were enhanced by Ag+ and their accumulations were more sensitive to Ag+ than phenolic acids. Genes in the upstream biosynthetic pathways of these ingredients responded to Ag+ earlier than those in the downstream biosynthetic pathways. Ag+ probably induced the whole pathways, upregulated gene expressions from the upstream pathways to the downstream pathways, and finally resulted in the enhancement of ingredient production. Compared with phenolic acids, tanshinone production was more sensitive to Ag+ treatments. This study will help us understand how secondary metabolism in S. miltiorrhiza responds to elicitors and provide a reference for the improvement of the production of targeted compounds in the near future. View Full-Text
Keywords: Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge; hairy roots; Ag+; phenolic acids; tanshinones Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge; hairy roots; Ag+; phenolic acids; tanshinones
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Xing, B.; Yang, D.; Guo, W.; Liang, Z.; Yan, X.; Zhu, Y.; Liu, Y. Ag+ as a More Effective Elicitor for Production of Tanshinones than Phenolic Acids in Salvia miltiorrhiza Hairy Roots. Molecules 2015, 20, 309-324.

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