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Molecules 2015, 20(1), 135-168; doi:10.3390/molecules20010135

In Silico Affinity Profiling of Neuroactive Polyphenols for Post-Traumatic Calpain Inactivation: A Molecular Docking and Atomistic Simulation Sensitivity Analysis

Wits Advanced Drug Delivery Platform Research Unit, Department of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, School of Therapeutic Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, 7 York Road, Parktown 2193, South Africa
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Academic Editor: Marcello Iriti
Received: 11 October 2014 / Accepted: 16 December 2014 / Published: 23 December 2014
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Abstract

Calcium-activated nonlysosomal neutral proteases, calpains, are believed to be early mediators of neuronal damage associated with neuron death and axonal degeneration after traumatic neural injuries. In this study, a library of biologically active small molecular weight calpain inhibitors was used for model validation and inhibition site recognition. Subsequently, two natural neuroactive polyphenols, curcumin and quercetin, were tested for their sensitivity and activity towards calpain’s proteolytic sequence and compared with the known calpain inhibitors via detailed molecular mechanics (MM), molecular dynamics (MD), and docking simulations. The MM and MD energy profiles (SJA6017 < AK275 < AK295 < PD151746 < quercetin < leupeptin < PD150606 < curcumin < ALLN < ALLM < MDL-28170 < calpeptin) and the docking analysis (AK275 < AK295 < PD151746 < ALLN < PD150606 < curcumin < leupeptin < quercetin < calpeptin < SJA6017 < MDL-28170 < ALLM) demonstrated that polyphenols conferred comparable calpain inhibition profiling. The modeling paradigm used in this study provides the first detailed account of corroboration of enzyme inhibition efficacy of calpain inhibitors and the respective calpain–calpain inhibitor molecular complexes’ energetic landscape and in addition stimulates the polyphenol bioactive paradigm for post-SCI intervention with implications reaching to experimental in vitro, in cyto, and in vivo studies. View Full-Text
Keywords: spinal cord injury; calpain; calpain inhibitors; polyphenols; curcumin; quercetin; static lattice atomistic simulations; molecular dynamics; molecular docking spinal cord injury; calpain; calpain inhibitors; polyphenols; curcumin; quercetin; static lattice atomistic simulations; molecular dynamics; molecular docking
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Kumar, P.; Choonara, Y.E.; Pillay, V. In Silico Affinity Profiling of Neuroactive Polyphenols for Post-Traumatic Calpain Inactivation: A Molecular Docking and Atomistic Simulation Sensitivity Analysis. Molecules 2015, 20, 135-168.

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